Overview of Aortic Stenosis

There are two typical clinical scenarios where the aortic stenosis condition is common. The first one is caused by an abnormally congenital unicuspid bicuspid valve, not the tricuspid. The symptoms can manifest in adolescents or young people when the stenosis is serious however, they are more likely to manifest around the age of 50-65 as degeneration and calcification of the valve are evident. A dilated ascending aorta because of an inherent flaw in the anatomy of the root system along with the hemodynamic effect of the aortic jet that is eccentric could be associated with the bicuspid valve in around half of the patients.

The aorta can be coarctated. It can also be seen in a variety of patients with congenital  aortic stenosis. The children of patients with bicuspid valves have greater risk of having the condition in an aorta, valve and/or the two (up at 30% certain series). Another pathological process known as calcific or degenerative Aortic Stenosis, is believed to be linked to calcium deposition as a result of processes that are similar to those that occur in atherosclerotic blood vessel disease. Around 25% of patients who are over age 65 as well as 35% patients over 70 have evidence of thickening of the aortic valve (sclerosis). Approximately, 10-20% will develop to hemodynamically significant aortic stenosis in the course of 10 years.¹

Aortic stenosis is now the most frequent valve surgery in developed nations Many sufferers are older. The risk factors include hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can also coexist with valvular orific stenosis.

Symptoms

Aortic valve stenosis can range in severity from moderate to serious. The signs and symptoms typically manifest when the valve narrows is extreme. Certain people suffering from aortic valve stenosis might not experience symptoms for years.

The signs and symptoms of aortic valve stenosis could be:

Aortic valve stenosis can result in heart failure. Heart failure symptoms include fatigue, breathlessness and swelling of feet and ankles.

When to seek medical help

If you experience an abnormal heartbeat or a heart murmur, your doctor might suggest visiting a specialist specially trained in conditions that affect the heart (cardiologist). If you experience any signs that could indicate an aortic valve obstruction, consult your physician.

Causes

The heart is equipped with four valves to ensure blood flow is in the right direction. These valves comprise Mitral Valve, the tricuspid valve as well as the pulmonary valve and the Aortic valve. Each valve is equipped with flaps (cusps or leaflets) that close and open every time a heart beat occurs. Sometimes, the valves do not fully close or open. If a valve does not fully close or open the blood flow can be reduced or blocked.

Aortic valve stenosis occurs when the aortic valve that connects the lower left chamber of the heart (left ventricle) and the aorta may not completely open. The blood vessel through which it circulates from the heart and into the aorta narrows (stenosis).

If the opening of the aortic valve is narrowed, your heart will have to perform harder to pump blood through the aorta throughout your entire body. The additional work required by the heart could make the ventricle of the left to become thicker and grow. The strain eventually can lead to an weakened heart muscle, which may eventually result in heart failure, as well as other serious issues.

The most common causes of aortic valve stenosis include:

Risk factors

The risk factors for Aortic valve stenosis are:

Complications

Aortic valve stenosis could create complications, which include:

Prevention

A few possible methods to avoid Aortic valve stenosis are:

If you are aware that you suffer from aortic valve deformity, your physician may suggest limiting intense exercise to avoid overloading your heart.

Diagnosis

Key Diagnostic Points

In order to determine whether you suffer from aortic valve the doctor will go over the signs and symptoms you have and discuss the medical background of you, and perform an exam. They will examine your heart using an stethoscope to determine whether there is a murmur in your heart that could be a sign of an aortic valve problem.

Tests

The doctor might order a series of tests to determine if aortic valve stenosis is the cause. Tests may also aid in determining the cause of the condition and its degree of severity.

Aortic valve stenosis tests can be:

Treatment

The treatment for aortic valve stenosis is based on the symptoms and signs as well as the severity of your condition.

If you are experiencing only mild symptoms, or none at all You may require your health condition checked regularly by a doctor. Your doctor might suggest healthy lifestyle changes and medication to manage symptoms or decrease the chance of developing complications.

Other procedures or surgeries

aortic valve replacementIt is possible that you’ll require surgery to fix or replace the damaged Aortic valve, even though you aren’t suffering from symptoms. Aortic valve surgery could be performed in conjunction with other heart surgeries.

Repair or replacement of an aortic valve is typically performed through a cut (incision) within the chest. Alternative approaches to surgery may be available. Check with your doctor to see whether you’re eligible to undergo these surgeries. Aortic valve surgery could be performed simultaneously with other heart surgeries.

The options for surgery to treat Aortic valve stenosis are:

TAVR

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