Aortic valve regurgitation – or aorta regurgitation – is a condition that occurs when your cardiac aorta does not close tightly. As a result, some of the blood pumping out of the pump chamber of your heart (left ventricle) leaks backward.
Leaks may prevent your heart from pumping blood properly throughout your body. As a result, you may feel tired and out of breath.
Aortic valve regeneration can develop spontaneously or over decades. Surgical correction of the aortic valve becomes necessary once aortic valve regurgitation is severe. ¹
Usually, regurgitation of the aortic valve gradually increases. You may not have any signs or symptoms for years. You may not know you have this condition. However, sometimes aortic valve regurgitation occurs suddenly, usually due to valve infection.
Signs and symptoms of severe aortic regurgitation may include
- Exhaustion by exercise or while asleep
- Fatigue and weakness, especially if you increase the level of your work
- The heart is pounding
- Heart murmur
- Abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia)
- Lightheaded or fainting
- Chest pain (angina), discomfort or stiffness, which often increases during exercise
- Feelings of rapid, rapid heartbeat (palpitations)
- Swollen ankles and feet
When to seek medical help
Contact your doctor right away if you have signs and symptoms of aortic valve regurgitation.
Sometimes the first symptoms of aortic valve regurgitation are related to heart failure. Make time to see your doctor if you have fatigue that may be better at rest, shortness of breath, and swollen ankles and feet, which are common symptoms of heart failure.
The aortic valve is one of the four valves that control the flow of blood to the heart. It separates the pump chamber of the heart (left ventricle) and the main artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to your body (aorta). The valve has flaps (cusps or strips) that open and close once each heartbeat.
At the entrance to the aortic valve, the valve does not close properly, causing blood to flow back into the ventricular septum (left ventricle). As a result, the left ventricle absorbs more blood, which in turn may cause it to become larger and/or thicker.
Initially, the large left ventricle helps maintain good blood flow with extra force. But in the end these changes weaken the left ventricle – and your whole heart.
Regurgitation of the aortic valve usually occurs gradually, but may develop abruptly if it is caused by valve infection. Any condition that damages the aortic valve can cause recurrence. However, you can develop aortic valve regurgitation without any known risk factors.
Causes of aortic valve inflammation include:
- Congenital heart valve disease. Some people are born with an aortic valve with only two cusps (bicuspid valve) or integrated cusps rather than three distinct normal cusps. Sometimes a valve can have only one cusp (unicuspid) or four cusps (quadricuspid), but this is rare.
- These congenital heart problems put you at risk of developing aortic valve regurgitation at some point in your life. If you have a parent or sibling who has a bicuspid valve, it increases the risk that you may have a bicuspid valve. However, you can have a bicuspid valve even if you do not have a feature family history.
- Narrow aortic valve (aortic stenosis). wear and tear aortic valve, calcium deposits can form in the aortic valve as you grow, making the aortic valve stronger and narrower. This condition, called aortic stenosis, prevents the valve from opening, causing closure. Aortic stenosis may also prevent the valve from closing properly.
- Inflammation of the lining of the chambers and heart valves (endocarditis). This life-threatening condition is usually caused by an infection. It can damage the aortic valve.
- Rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is a strep throat problem and was once a common childhood illness in the United States. It can cause the aortic valve to become stiff and thin (stenosis), causing bleeding. If you have a rare heart valve due to rheumatic fever, it is called rheumatic heart disease.
- Other diseases. Other rare conditions can enlarge the aorta and aortic valve and lead to recovery, including Marfan syndrome, a disorder of the connective tissue. Other autoimmune conditions, such as lupus, can also lead to aortic valve recurrence.
- Rupture or injury of the main artery (aorta). Traumatic chest injury or aortic rupture (separation) may cause back blood flow through the aortic valve.
Factors that make you more likely to improve aortic valve duplication include:
- Certain heart conditions present at birth (congenital heart disease)
- History of cardiovascular diseases
- Certain conditions that can affect the heart, such as Marfan syndrome
- Other conditions of the heart valve, such as aortic valve stenosis
- High blood pressure
Possible problems with aortic valve replacement include:
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Heart failure
- Cardiovascular diseases, such as endocarditis
- Cardiac problems (arrhythmias)
If you have any type of heart condition, see your doctor regularly so that he or she can monitor you. If you have a parent, child, brother or sister with a bicuspid aortic valve, you should have an echocardiogram to check for the aortic valve. Holding aorta valve regurgitation or other heart condition before it starts or in the early stages may make it easier to treat.
Also, take precautionary measures that may increase your risk of aortic valve regeneration, including:
- Rheumatic fever. If you have a sore throat, see a doctor. Untreated strep throat can lead to rheumatic fever. Strep throat is easily treated with antibiotics.
- High blood pressure. Check your blood pressure regularly. Make sure it is properly controlled to prevent an aortic recurrence.
To check the flow of the aortic valve, your doctor will perform a physical examination and ask you questions about your symptoms and symptoms and your family’s medical history. Your doctor may hear strange sounds (sighs) as you listen to your heart with a stethoscope. A cardiologist may examine you.
Your doctor may schedule several tests to diagnose aortic valve recurrence and determine its cause. Testing may include:
- Echocardiogram. The sound waves directed to your heart emanate from something like a wand (transducer) caught in your chest causing images of your heart to move. This test can help doctors monitor the condition of the aortic valve and aorta. It can help doctors determine the cause and severity of your condition and determine if you have additional heart valve conditions. Physicians may also use a 3D echocardiogram.
- A transesophageal echocardiogram may be performed to monitor the aortic valve. In this type of echocardiogram, a small transducer attached to the end of the tube is inserted under the tube that extends from your mouth to your stomach (esophagus).
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). In this test, the electrodes attached to the pads on your skin measure the electrical activity of your heart. The ECG can detect enlarged chambers of your heart, heart disease and abnormal heart rhythm.
- Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can show if your heart or aorta is enlarged. It can also help doctors see the condition of your lungs.
- Exercise tests or stress tests. Exercise tests help doctors determine if you have any signs and symptoms of aortic valve disease during exercise. These tests can help determine the severity of your condition. If you are unable to exercise, medications with the same effects as exercise on your heart can be used.
- MRI of the heart. Using magnetic fields and radio waves, this test produces images of your heart, including the aorta and aortic valve.
- Cardiac catheterization. These tests are not usually used to diagnose aortic valve maturation but can be performed if other tests are unable to diagnose the condition or determine its severity. Doctors may also perform cardiac catheterization before surgical resection of the valves to determine if there is a blockage of the coronary arteries so that they can be repaired during valve surgery. a blood vessel, usually in your pelvis, in the artery in your heart. The dye flows into the catheter to make your blood vessels more clearly visible on X-ray. This gives your doctor a detailed picture of your cardiovascular system and how your heart works. It can also measure the pressure within the heart chambers.
Treatment of aortic valve regurgitation depends on the severity of your condition, depends on signs and symptoms, and if your condition worsens. The principles of aortic valve regurgitation treatment to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications.
If your symptoms are mild or you have no symptoms, your doctor may monitor your condition by regularly monitoring you and recommending changes in your health. You may need regular echocardiograms to make sure the duplication of your aortic valve is not too bad.
Your doctor may recommend that you take medication to treat symptoms of aortic valve regurgitation or to reduce the risk of complications. Medications may be given to lower blood pressure.
Surgery or other procedures
Eventually, you may need surgery to repair or replace a diseased aorta valve, especially if you have aortic recurrence and severe symptoms. However, some people need surgery even if it is not difficult, or they have no symptoms.
The decision to repair or replace a damaged aortic valve depends on your symptoms, age and overall health, and whether you need heart surgery to correct another heart problem. If you do some heart surgery, doctors can perform aortic valve surgery at the same time.
Surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve may be performed as open heart surgery, which involves a cut (cut) in the chest. Sometimes doctors can perform very small heart operations to replace the aortic valve. This procedure, called transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), uses smaller holes than those used in open-heart surgery.
Aortic valve replacement surgery includes:
- Adjustment of the aortic valve. To repair the aorta valve, surgeons may disassemble the valve flaps (cusps) together, reshape or remove excess valve tissue so that the cusps close tightly, or close holes in the valve. Doctors can use a catheter procedure to insert a plug or device to repair a leaky aorta valve.
- Replacement of the aortic valve. When the aortic valve is replaced, your surgeon removes a defective valve and inserts a mechanical valve or a valve made of cow, pig, or human heart tissue (biological tissue valve). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a cardiovascular procedure that replaces the small aortic valve with a biological tissue valve. Sometimes, the aortic valve is replaced with your lung valve (pulmonary). Your lung valve is replaced by a biological lung tissue valve from a deceased person. This complex surgery is called the Ross procedure.
- Biological valves break down over time and may need to be replaced. People with mechanical valves will need to take antiretroviral drugs for the rest of their lives to protect blood clots. Your doctor will discuss with you the benefits and risks of each type of valve so that you can choose the one that is right for you.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Although lifestyle changes may prevent or control your condition, your doctor may suggest that you include several cardiovascular agents in your life. This may include:
- Eating healthy heart food. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, low-fat or low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish and grains. Avoid saturated fats and trans fats, salt, and excess sugar.
- Maintaining a healthy weight. Plan to maintain a healthy weight. If you are overweight or obese, your doctor may recommend that you lose weight. Ask your doctor what weight loss vaccine is right for you.
- Exercise regularly. Indicate to include approximately 30 minutes of exercise, such as brisk walking, in your daily fitness program. Ask your doctor for guidance before you start exercising, especially if you are considering competitive sports.
- Managing stress. Find ways to help manage your stress, such as doing relaxation activities, meditation, exercise, and spending time with family and friends.
- Avoiding tobacco. If you smoke, stop. Ask your doctor about medications that can help you quit smoking. Joining a support group can be helpful.
- Controlling the high blood pressure. If you are taking blood pressure medication, take it exactly as your doctor advised.
Pregnancy and aortic valve regurgitation
For women with aortic valve regurgitation, it is important to talk to your doctor before you become pregnant. Your doctor can discuss with you what medications you can safely take, and whether you need a procedure to treat your valve condition before pregnancy.
You will probably need to monitor your doctor closely during pregnancy. Doctors may recommend that women with severe valve conditions avoid pregnancy in order to avoid the risk of complications.