Mitral Valve Regurgitation

mitral valve regurgitationMitral valve regurgitation often referred to as mitral regurgitation or mitral insufficiency or mitral dysfunction is a condition where your heart’s mitral valve fails to close properly which allows blood to flow backwards through the heart. When the regurgitation of your mitral valve has a significant amount it means that blood isn’t moving within your heart, or the outside in your body effectively which can cause you to feel tired or breathless.

The treatment of mitral valve regurgitation is dependent on how severe the condition is, if it’s worsening and if there are any symptoms. In the case of leakage that is not too severe treatments are usually not required.

It is possible that you will require heart surgery for repair, or replacement of the valve in case of extreme regurgitation or leakage. If left untreated with treatment, serious mitral valve regurgitation could lead to heart malfunction or heart rhythm issues (arrhythmias). Even people who aren’t experiencing symptoms could require a medical evaluation from an experienced surgeon and cardiologist in mitral valve diseases to determine if an early intervention is beneficial.

Symptoms

A few people suffering from mitral valve diseases may not notice symptoms for a number of years. The signs as well as symptoms for mitral valve dysfunction that depend on the extent and speed at which the condition is diagnosed, may include:

Mitral valve regurgitation is usually slow and mild in its progression. There may be no signs for years, and you may not even know you suffer from this condition. It may not get any worse.

The doctor may first think that you suffer from mitral valve regurgitation when they detect an abnormal heart murmur. In some cases, however, the problem can be diagnosed quickly and you might be greeted with a sudden increase in extreme symptoms and signs.

When is the best time to seek medical help?

If your doctor detects a heart murmur while listening to your heart via the stethoscope, he/she might suggest that you see a cardiologist and obtain an echocardiogram. If you experience symptoms that indicate mitral valve regurgitation, or another issue within your heart, you should consult your physician immediately. The first signs are actually the signs of the mitral valve’s complications which include heart failure, an illness in which your heart isn’t able to pump enough blood to meet the demands of your body.

Causes

The heart contains four valves to ensure that blood flows in the right direction. The valves are the mitral valve the tricuspid valve as well as the pulmonary valve and the an aortic valve. Each valve is equipped with flaps (leaflets or cusps) which open and close at the same time every heartbeat. Sometimes, valves don’t fully close or open and can cause disruption to blood flow through your heart and into your body.

In mitral valve regurgitation the valve that connects the left heart chamber’s upper (left atrium) and the lower left heart chamber (left ventricle) does not close properly which causes blood to leak backwards to the atrium of left (regurgitation).

Causes of Mitral Valve regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation may be caused by issues in the mitral valve which is also known as primary mitral regurgitation of the valve. The left ventricle is a part of the body that suffers from diseases. may cause functional or secondary mitral valve regurgitation.

The possible reasons for mitral valve regurgitation are:

Risk factors

Certain factors can increase the risk of developing mitral valve regurgitation The most common causes are:

Complications

If it’s minor mitral valve regurgitation generally doesn’t cause any issues. However serious mitral valve regurgitation may cause complications, such as:

Diagnosis

Key diagnostic points

  • It could be unaffected for years (or for the rest of life).
  • Severe mitral regurgitation may cause left-sided heart failure.
  • In the case of chronic mitral regurgitation primary, surgery is recommended for symptoms, or when the LV ejection percentage (LVEF) lower than 60 percent or the echocardiographic LV end-systolic size is more than 4.0 cm.
  • For patients with mitral prolapse or severe mitral regurgitation surgery is suggested when mitral repair is carried out.
  • Patients suffering from functional mitral regurgitation can be improved by biventricular pacing. Some might require surgical intervention.

The doctor will inquire questions about the medical background of you as well as the background of family members with heart problems. The doctor will also conduct an examination that involves the heart’s activity using an instrument called a stethoscope. Mitral valve regurgitation typically produces the sound of blood flowing backwards from the valve (heart murmur).

The doctor will decide the tests needed in order to determine an assessment. If you need to test for a diagnosis, you might be sent to a cardiac surgeon.

Tests

The most common tests used to diagnose regurgitation of the mitral valve include:

Treatment

The treatment for regurgitation of the mitral valve varies on how severe your situation is, whether you’re experiencing symptoms or signs or if the condition is becoming worse. The aim for treatment is to enhance the heart’s performance while reducing your symptoms and signs and preventing any further complications.

A doctor who is trained to treat heart conditions (cardiologist) will offer your medical care. If you suffer from the condition of mitral valve regurgitation think about getting treatment in a medical facility that has an multidisciplinary team of doctors and medical professionals who are trained and adept at evaluating the heart valve and treating diseases. The team will work closely with you in determining the best course of treatment for your situation.

Monitering mitral regurgitation

A few people, specifically those who have mild regurgitation may not require treatment. However, it is possible that the condition will need to be monitored by your doctor. There may be a need for regular assessments and the frequency will depend on your illness. Your physician may also suggest taking steps to improve your lifestyle.

Medications

Your physician may prescribe medication to treat the symptoms but medication cannot treat mitral valve regurgitation.

The medications may comprise:

Surgery

Your mitral valve might require repairs or replaced. Doctors might suggest mitral valve replacement or repair even if there aren’t any symptoms, since this could help prevent complications and improve the outcome. If you require surgery due to other heart conditions Your doctor could replace or repair the damaged mitral valve in the same procedure.

Mitral valve surgeries are generally carried out by cutting (incision) within the chest. In certain instances, surgeons may perform minimally invasive surgery, which requires the making of smaller incisions than those utilized in open heart surgery.

Some medical facilities may carry out robot-assisted heart surgery, which is a form that is minimally-invasive. In this kind of procedure surgeons observe the heart with an enhanced high-definition 3D view using a video monitor. They also employ robotic arms to mimic certain procedures used in open heart operations.

The doctor will be able to discuss with you what mitral valve replacement or valve replacement might be suitable for your particular situation. Doctors might also assess your health to determine if you’re eligible for minimally-invasive heart operation or open-heart surgery.

Doctors may suggest repair to the mitral valve because it protects your valve and can preserve your the heart’s function. If mitral valve repair isn’t feasible doctors might have to replace the mitral valve¹.

Repair of the Mitral valve

Surgeons can fix the valve by reconnecting the valve flaps (leaflets) and replacement of the cords that support the valve or by removing the valve’s excess tissue so that the leaflets close securely. Surgery may be used to strengthen or tighten the ring around the valve (annulus) by implanting an artificial rings (annuloplasty bands).

Doctors might make use of long narrow tube (catheters) to fix the valve of the mitral in certain situations. In one procedure using catheters surgeons insert a catheter that has clips that are inserted into an artery inside the groin. They then direct it into the valve in your mitral. Doctors make use of the clip to modify the shape of the valve. Patients with severe signs caused by mitral valve regurgitation that aren’t candidates for surgery or have an increased risk of surgery may be considered for this procedure.

In another way doctors can fix a previously repaired mitral valve which is leaky through the use of a device to stop the leakage².

Mitral valve replacement

In the event that your valve cannot be repaired, it could require replacement of the mitral valve. When you undergo mitral valve replacement, your surgeon will remove your damaged valve, and then replaces it by a mechanical valve or a valve made of human, cow or pig the heart (biological tissue valve).

The valves of biological tissue degrade in time, and eventually require replacement. Patients with mechanical valves are required to be on blood thinners to keep them from getting blood clots.

Your doctor will be able to discuss the benefits and risks of each kind of heart valve and decide which one would be suitable for your needs.

Doctors continue to research catheter procedures that fix or repair mitral valves. Some medical facilities may provide mitral valve replacement as part of an intervention with a catheter within a clinical study for patients suffering from severe mitral valve diseases who aren’t candidates for surgery. A catheter procedure could be utilized to place an alternative valve into the biological tissue replacement valve that’s not functioning as it should.

Consult your doctor about the kind of follow-up treatment you’ll need following your surgery and inform your doctor when you begin experiencing new symptoms or symptoms become worse following treatment.

Lifestyle and home remedies for home

The doctor might suggest that you make a variety of healthy lifestyle changes for your heart to your routine, including:

If you’re a woman suffering from Mitral Valve Regurgitation you need to speak with your doctor prior to becoming pregnant. The heart is triggered by pregnancy and has to be more active. The extent to which a heart that has mitral valve regurgitation copes with this additional work is dependent on the extent of regurgitation as well as the efficiency your heart is pumping. Through your pregnancy and following the birth, your cardiologist as well as your obstetrician must be on the lookout for your.

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