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  • Generic Name: epinephrine
  • Brand Name: Adrenalin
  • Drug Class: Alpha/Beta Agonists
Last updated on MDtodate: 10/03/2022


Common adverse reactions to systemically administered epinephrine include anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness, tremor, weakness, dizziness, sweating, palpitations, pallor, nausea and vomiting, headache, and respiratory difficulties. These symptoms occur in some persons receiving therapeutic doses of epinephrine, but are more likely to occur in patients with heart disease, hypertension, or hyperthyroidism.

The true incidence of adverse reactions associated with the systemic use of epinephrine is difficult to determine. Adverse reactions reported in observational trials, case reports, and studies are listed below by body system:

Cardiovascular: angina, arrhythmias, hypertension, pallor, palpitations, tachyarrhythmia, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, ventricular ectopy and stress cardiomyopathy. Rapid rises in blood pressure associated with epinephrine use have produced cerebral hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease.

Neurological: disorientation, impaired memory, panic, psychomotor agitation, sleepiness, tingling.

Psychiatric: anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness.


Patients with Parkinson’s disease may experience psychomotor agitation or a temporary worsening of symptoms.

Diabetic patients may experience transient increases in blood sugar.

Injection into the buttock has resulted in cases of gas gangrene.

Rare cases of serious skin and soft tissue infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by Clostridia (gas gangrene), have been reported following epinephrine injection in the thigh.




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