TRULICITY SIDE EFFECTS
- Generic Name: dulaglutide injection, for subcutaneous use
- Brand Name: Trulicity
- Drug Class: Antidiabetics, Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Agonists
The following serious reactions are described below or elsewhere in the prescribing information:
- Risk of Thyroid C-cell Tumors
- Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Insulin Secretagogues or Insulin
- Hypersensitivity Reactions
- Acute Kidney Injury
- Severe Gastrointestinal Disease
Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Pool Of Placebo-Controlled Trials
The data in Table 1 are derived from placebo-controlled trials.
These data reflect exposure of 1670 patients to TRULICITY and a mean duration of exposure to TRULICITY of 23.8 weeks. Across the treatment arms, the mean age of patients was 56 years, 1% were 75 years or older and 53% were male. The population in these studies was 69% White, 7% Black or African American, 13% Asian; 30% were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 8.0 years and had a mean HbA1c of 8.0%. At baseline, 2.5% of the population reported retinopathy. Baseline estimated renal function was normal or mildly impaired (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 96.0% of the pooled study populations.
Table 1 shows common adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, associated with the use of TRULICITY in a pool of placebo-controlled trials. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on TRULICITY than on placebo, and occurred in at least 5% of patients treated with TRULICITY.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Trials Reported in ≥5% of TRULICITY-Treated Patients
|TRULICITY 0.75 mg
|TRULICITY 1.5 mg
|a Includes diarrhea, fecal volume increased, frequent bowel movements.
b Includes retching, vomiting, vomiting projectile.
cIncludes abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain, abdominal pain lower, abdominal pain upper, abdominal tenderness, gastrointestinal pain.
d Includes fatigue, asthenia, malaise.
Note: Percentages reflect the number of patients that reported at least 1 treatment-emergent occurrence of the adverse reaction.
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
In the pool of placebo-controlled trials, gastrointestinal adverse reactions occurred more frequently among patients receiving TRULICITY than placebo (placebo 21.3%, 0.75 mg 31.6%, 1.5 mg 41.0%). More patients receiving TRULICITY 0.75 mg (1.3%) and TRULICITY 1.5 mg (3.5%) discontinued treatment due to gastrointestinal adverse reactions than patients receiving placebo (0.2%). Investigators graded the severity of gastrointestinal adverse reactions occurring on 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg of TRULICITY as “mild” in 58% and 48% of cases, respectively, “moderate” in 35% and 42% of cases, respectively, or “severe” in 7% and 11% of cases, respectively.
In addition to the reactions in Table 1, the following adverse reactions were reported more frequently in TRULICITY-treated patients than placebo (frequencies listed, respectively, as: placebo; 0.75 mg; 1.5 mg): constipation (0.7%, 3.9%, 3.7%), flatulence (1.4%, 1.4%, 3.4%), abdominal distension (0.7%, 2.9%, 2.3%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (0.5%, 1.7%, 2.0%), and eructation (0.2%, 0.6%, 1.6%).
Pool Of Placebo-And Active-Controlled Trials
The occurrence of adverse reactions was also evaluated in a larger pool of patients with type 2 diabetes participating in 6 placebo-and active-controlled trials evaluating the use of TRULICITY as monotherapy and add-on therapy to oral medications or insulin. In this pool, a total of 3342 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with TRULICITY for a mean duration of 52 weeks. The mean age of patients was 56 years, 2% were 75 years or older and 51% were male. The population in these studies was 71% White, 7% Black or African American, 11% Asian; 32% were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 8.2 years and had a mean HbA1c of 7.6-8.5%. At baseline, 5.2% of the population reported retinopathy. Baseline estimated renal function was normal or mildly impaired (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 95.7% of the TRULICITY population.
In the pool of placebo-and active-controlled trials, the types and frequency of common adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, were similar to those listed in Table 1.
Other Adverse Reactions
Table 2 summarizes the incidence of hypoglycemia in the placebo-controlled clinical studies: episodes with a glucose level <54 mg/dL with or without symptoms, and severe hypoglycemia, defined as an episode requiring the assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or other resuscitative actions.
Table 2: Incidence (%) of Hypoglycemia in Placebo-Controlled Trials
|Add-on to Metformin|
|Hypoglycemia with a glucose level <54 mg/dL||0||0.3||0.7|
|Add-on to Metformin + Pioglitazone|
|Hypoglycemia with a glucose level <54 mg/dL||1.4||2.1||0|
|Add-on to Glimepiride|
|Hypoglycemia with a glucose level <54 mg/dL||0||–||3.3|
|In Combination with Insulin Glargine ± Metformin|
|Hypoglycemia with a glucose level <54 mg/dL||9.3||–||14.7|
|Add-on to SGLT2i ± Metformin|
|Hypoglycemia with a glucose level <54 mg/dL||0.7||0.7||0.7|
Hypoglycemia was more frequent when TRULICITY was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin than when used with non-secretagogues. In a 78-week clinical trial, hypoglycemia (glucose level <54 mg/dL) occurred in 20% and 21% of patients when TRULICITY 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg, respectively, were co-administered with a sulfonylurea. Severe hypoglycemia occurred in 0% and 0.7% of patients when TRULICITY 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg, respectively, were co-administered with a sulfonylurea. In a 52-week clinical trial, hypoglycemia (glucose level <54 mg/dL) occurred in 77% and 69% of patients when TRULICITY 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg, respectively, were co-administered with prandial insulin. Severe hypoglycemia occurred in 2.7% and 3.4% of patients when TRULICITY 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg, respectively, were co-administered with prandial insulin. Refer to Table 2 for the incidence of hypoglycemia in patients treated in combination with basal insulin glargine.
Heart Rate Increase and Tachycardia-Related Adverse Reactions
TRULICITY 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg resulted in a mean increase in heart rate (HR) of 2-4 beats per minute (bpm). The long-term clinical effects of the increase in HR have not been established.
Adverse reactions of sinus tachycardia were reported more frequently in patients exposed to TRULICITY. Sinus tachycardia was reported in 3.0%, 2.8%, and 5.6% of patients treated with placebo, TRULICITY 0.75 mg and TRULICITY 1.5 mg, respectively. Persistence of sinus tachycardia (reported at more than 2 visits) was reported in 0.2%, 0.4% and 1.6% of patients treated with placebo, TRULICITY 0.75 mg and TRULICITY 1.5 mg, respectively. Episodes of sinus tachycardia, associated with a concomitant increase from baseline in heart rate of ≥15 beats per minute, were reported in 0.7%, 1.3% and 2.2% of patients treated with placebo, TRULICITY 0.75 mg and TRULICITY 1.5 mg, respectively.
Systemic hypersensitivity adverse reactions, sometimes severe (e.g., severe urticaria, systemic rash, facial edema, lip swelling), occurred in 0.5% of patients on TRULICITY in the four Phase 2 and five Phase 3 studies.
In the placebo-controlled studies, injection-site reactions (e.g., injection-site rash, erythema) were reported in 0.5% of TRULICITY-treated patients and in 0.0% of placebo-treated patients.
PR Interval Prolongation and Adverse Reactions of First-Degree Atrioventricular (AV) Block
A mean increase from baseline in PR interval of 2-3 milliseconds was observed in TRULICITY-treated patients in contrast to a mean decrease of 0.9 milliseconds in placebo-treated patients. The adverse reaction of first-degree AV block occurred more frequently in patients treated with TRULICITY than placebo (0.9%, 1.7% and 2.3% for placebo, TRULICITY 0.75 mg and TRULICITY 1.5 mg, respectively). On electrocardiograms, a PR interval increase to at least 220 milliseconds was observed in 0.7%, 2.5% and 3.2% of patients treated with placebo, TRULICITY 0.75 mg and TRULICITY 1.5 mg, respectively.
Amylase and Lipase Increase
Patients exposed to TRULICITY had mean increases from baseline in lipase and/or pancreatic amylase of 14% to 20%, while placebo-treated patients had mean increases of up to 3%.
Across four Phase 2 and five Phase 3 clinical studies, 64 (1.6%) TRULICITY-treated patients developed anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) to the active ingredient in TRULICITY (i.e., dulaglutide).
Of the 64 dulaglutide-treated patients that developed dulaglutide ADAs, 34 patients (0.9% of the overall population) had dulaglutide-neutralizing antibodies, and 36 patients (0.9% of the overall population) developed antibodies against native GLP-1.
The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, the incidence of antibodies to dulaglutide cannot be directly compared with the incidence of antibodies of other products.
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of TRULICITY. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Anaphylactic reactions, angioedema
- Acute renal failure or worsening of chronic renal failure, sometimes requiring hemodialysis
SRC: NLM .