Mitral Valve Stenosis
Mitral valve stenosis, often referred to mitral stenosis is an obstruction in the mitral valve in the heart. The valve is not able to fully open, thereby preventing circulation of blood towards the heart’s pump chamber (left ventricle). Mitral valve stenosis could cause you to feel tired and short of breath, in addition to other symptoms.
The primary reason for mitral valve stenosis comes from a disease known as rheumatic disease that is linked to streptococcal infections. Rheumatic disease – which is becoming rare on the United States, but still prevalent in countries with poorer infrastructure may cause damage to Mitral valve. If not treated mitral valve stenosis could cause serious heart issues.
In mitral valve stenosis the pressure rises in the heart , especially in left upper chamber. It then is transferred to the lungs, creating fluid (congestion) and breathing problems.
The condition usually worsens as time passes. There are times when you feel better due to mitral valve stenosis, but you might experience mild symptoms for a long time. The symptoms of mitral valve stenosis generally are seen between 15 to 40, however it can happen at any age even during childhood.
The signs and symptoms of mitral valve narrowing are:
- Breathing can be difficult, particularly when you’re at work or asleep.
- Fatigue, particularly when you are working
- Legs or feet swelling
- Feelings of a rapid, fast heartbeat (palpitations)
- Chest pain or discomfort
- Cough blood
- The feeling of fainting or dizziness can be a cause.
- The heart is screaming
- Lungs with flatulence
- Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
Mitral valve stenosis symptoms could manifest or become worsened whenever your heart rate is elevated or increases, for instance, during exercise. It is also possible that they are triggered due to pregnancy or other causes, like infections.
When should you seek medical help?
Make an appointment immediately if you feel tired or short of breath after exercise and heart rate. You may also experience chest discomfort.
If you’ve found yourself diagnosed as having mitral valve disease, but did not experience any symptoms, consult your physician when you should schedule a regular examination.
Mitral valve stenosis causes are:
- Rheumatic fever. A problem with Rheumatic fever or strep throat may cause damage to Mitral valve. It is also the main reason for the mitral valve to stenosis. It may cause damage to the mitral valve, creating flaps that tighten or joined. The signs as well as symptoms could not reflect the signs of aging.
- calcium deposits. As you grow older, calcium deposits could be found around Mitral valve (annulus) which could cause mitral valve stenosis.
- Treatment for radiation. Treatment for certain kinds of cancer that require radiation to your chest can cause the valve of the mitral valve to contract and then tighten.
- Another cause. In rare cases infants have a small mitral valve (congenital defect) which causes issues as time passes. Certain autoimmune diseases like lupus can also cause the condition known as mitral valve stenosis.
The way that the heart functions:
The heart, which is the central point in your system of circulation is composed of four chambers. The two chambers in the upper (atria) are filled with blood. Two lower chambers (ventricles) pump blood.
The heart valves of the four shut and open to ensure that blood flows only in one direction towards your heart. Mitral valve, which is located in between two heart chambers, on your left is composed of two parts called leaflets.
The mitral valve opens as blood flow from left atrium into the ventricle on left. The flaps then close to stop the blood from entering the left ventricle. A damaged heart valve is unable to completely close or open.
Mitral valve stenosis can be as rare as it ever was due to the most common reason, rheumatic fever is not rare within the United States. Rheumatic fever is an issue in countries that are developing.
Risks associated with mitral valve stenosis are strep infections that have not been treated and the presence of rheumatic disease.
Seniors are more at risk of developing Mitral Valve Stenosis. As you age calcium deposits may form around the mitral valve that can cause mitral valve stenosis.
Sometimes, patients who receive radiation therapy for certain kinds of cancer can suffer from mitral valve mitral valve stenosis.
As with other heart valve issues Mitral valve stenosis may restrict your heart and slow the flow of blood. If left untreated mitral valve stenosis could cause complications, such as:
- Blood pressure is high in the pulmonary blood vessels (pulmonary hypertension). Increased pressure in the arteries that transport the blood of your heart into your lung makes your heart to be more active.
- heart failure. A small mitral valve orifice can block the flow of blood. In the result, the pressure could rise in your lung, causing an increase in fluid. This pressure builds up onto the left side of your heart, which can lead to failure of the right heart.
- Lung fluid (pulmonary swelling). In this situation, fluid and blood return to the lung. The condition can result in breath shortness and can cause you to cough mucus derived from blood.
- Heart expansion. Increased pressure on mitral valve stenosis leads to an expansion of the upper left ventricle in your heart (atrium).
- Atrial fibrillation. Stretching and enlargement of the left atrium could trigger the heart rhythm issue in which the upper chambers of your heartbeat are synchronized in a peculiar and fast way.
- Clots in blood. Untreated atrial fibrillation may cause blood clots form in the left upper chamber in your heart. Blood clots in your heart may be broken down and then travel across your body, causing severe complications, including stroke, if the clot blocks the blood vessels of your brain.
The most effective method to avoid mitral valve stenosis is to avoid the main cause of it, the rheumatic fever. It is possible to do this by making sure you and your children visit your doctor about an aching throat. A strep throat infection that isn’t treated can lead to the rheumatic virus. It is good news that strep throat can be generally treated by using antibiotics.
Key diagnostic points
- The symptoms are often triggered by the an onset of atrial fibrillation, or pregnancies.
- The symptoms include fatigue, dyspnea from exertion and orthopnea if the stenosis is severe
- Intervention is indicated for the symptoms of atrial fibrillation or the presence of hypertension in the pulmonary system. Patients who are symptomatic have a mitral-valve area smaller that 1.5 cm2.
Your doctor will inquire regarding your health history, and then give an examination which includes the heart’s activity using the instrument called a stethoscope. Mitral valve stenosis results in an irregular heartbeats, also known as heartbeat.
Your doctor may be able to listen to your lungs for pulmonary congestion. This is the build-up of fluid inside the lungs. This could be caused by Mitral Valve Stenosis.
Your doctor will determine which tests are required to identify you and whether you’ll need to see an cardiologist.
An examination may be conducted to determine the root of mitral valve stenosis as well as to find out if the valve could be fixed. Common tests to detect mitral valve stenosis are:
- Electrocardiogram (ECG). The electrodes that are attached to the pads of your skin monitor electrical signals that your heart produces and provide you with information about your heart’s rhythm. You could run on the treadmill or take an excursion on a bicycle in the ECG to observe how your heart reacts to physical exercise.
- Chest Xray. A chest X-ray will help your doctor know whether your heart is over-sized. A chest X-ray may reveal the health of your lungs.
- Echocardiogram Transthoracic. The sound waves that are directed towards your heart come from a device similar to the wand (transducer) placed in your chest. This device creates videos of your movable heart. The test can be used to determine the severity of mitral valve obstruction.
- Echocardiogram of the transesophageal region. A wand-like device that is attached to the top of the tube in the back of the throat. This permits your doctor to inspect the mitral valve with greater precision than a standard echocardiogram.
- Catheterization of the cardiac. These tests are typically not used to diagnose mitral valve stenosis. However, they could be useful in the event that other tests aren’t capable of diagnosing the condition or determine the degree. This involves connecting a tiny catheter (catheter) to blood vessels, which are usually located in the groin area, to the artery inside your heart. The dye enters the catheter, making the vein visible when you take an X-ray.
If you suffer from moderate or moderate valve narrowing that has no signs, you might not require treatment immediately. Instead, your physician will examine the valve to determine whether the condition is becoming worse.
There’s no prescribed drug that can end your emotions from flowing although their effects could be slowed down. Certain drugs may alleviate symptoms by reducing heart rate and regulating the heart rate.
Your doctor could suggest one or more these medicines:
- Diuretics in order to decrease the buildup of fluid in your lungs, or anywhere else.
- Anticoagulants aid in preventing blood clots.
- Beta-blockers calcium channel blockers as well as digitalis glycosides lower the heart rate and allow you to heart beat faster.
- anti-arrhythmic medication used to manage atrial fibrillation as well as other abnormal heart rhythms related Mitral Valve Stenosis.
- Antibiotics which stop the recurrence of rheumatic fever, if it is the root cause of Mitral valve narrowing.
Other procedures or surgeries
There may be a need for an adjustment to your valve or replacement in order to cure mitral valve narrowing which could involve surgical and non-surgical alternatives.
- Balloon Percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty. This procedure, which is also known as a balloon valvotomy the surgeon inserts a tiny, soft tube (catheter) that is attached to a balloon in the vein of the uterus or arm and then directs it to the valve that is narrow. Once the balloon is in the right place, the balloon expands to open the valve, enhancing the flow of blood. It is removed and a tube containing the balloon is pulled out. Not every patient with mitral valve stenosis will be suitable for balloon valveplasty. Talk to your doctor about how to determine if balloon valvuloplasty is the right decision¹.
- Comsurotomy surgical. If balloon valvuloplasty is not an option the heart surgeon can do this open heart surgery to eliminate the deposits of calcium and red tissue in order to clear of the valve. The procedure requires you to be equipped with a heart and lung transplants during the procedure. It is possible to repeat the procedure in the event that the mitral valve stenosis recurs.
- Mitral valve replacement. In the event that the valve is unable to be repaired, it may be suggested replacing the broken valve using the aid of a valve or machine made of pig, cow, and human cardiac tissues (biological tissue valve). The valves of biological tissue break down in time and could require replacement. If you are using mechanical valves then you’ll have to use blood thinners for the remainder of your life in order to avoid blood clots. Your physician will explain to you the pros and cons of each valve, and then discuss which might be the most suitable for you².
Lifestyle and home remedies for home
Changing your lifestyle can help improve your heart health. If you suffer from mitral valve stenosis, your physician might recommend:
- Cut down on the amount of salt. Salt in foods and drinks may cause an increase in stress in your heart. Avoid foods with high levels of sodium. Don’t add salt to your food. Check the labels on food items and request dishes with less salt in restaurants.
- Maintain an appropriate weight. Ask your doctor to determine what is a healthy weight for you.
- Reduce alcohol consumption and the other stimulants. Excessive use of nicotine, caffeine, alcohol and other stimulants may cause your heartbeat to beat faster, and can cause more serious arrhythmias.
- Do your exercise regularly. How long and the intensity you can manage to work out will be contingent on the level of fitness and the intensity of your exercise. However, everyone should exercise at a moderate and regular basis. Get advice from your doctor before beginning to exercise particularly if you’re thinking about participating in playing competitive sports.
- Quit smoking. If you smoke discuss with your physician about the programs and medications to aid you in quitting.
- Visit your doctor frequently. Always check with your primary physician or cardiologist. If you notice a rapid heartbeat or feel that your heart is beating, seek medical assistance. If you don’t treat your heartbeat, it can increase in those suffering from mitral valve narrowing.
Women who suffer from mitral valve stenosis should discuss family planning with their physicians before they become pregnant. The heart is triggered when pregnant and has to perform more efficiently. The extent to which a heart that has mitral valve stenosis can handle the additional work is contingent on the severity of the stenosis as well as how the heart pumping. If you’re pregnant and suffer from mitral valve stenosis doctor should monitor you carefully.