GAMIFANT SIDE EFFECTS
- Generic Name: emapalumab-lzsg injection
- Brand Name: Gamifant
- Drug Class: Immunomodulators
The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Infusion-Related Reactions
Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety data described in this section reflect exposure to GAMIFANT in which 34 patients with untreated primary HLH and previously treated patients with primary HLH (NCT01818492) received GAMIFANT at a starting dose of 1 mg/kg every 3 days with dose increases up to 10 mg/kg. The median duration of treatment with GAMIFANT was 59 days (range: 4 to 245 days) and the median cumulative dose was 25 mg/kg (range: 4 to 254 mg/kg).
The median age of study population was 1 year (range: 0.1 to 13 years), 53% were female, and 65% were Caucasian.
Serious adverse reactions were reported in 53% of patients. The most common serious adverse reactions (≥ 3%) included infections, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and multiple organ dysfunction. Fatal adverse reactions occurred in two (6%) of patients and included septic shock and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
Disseminated histoplasmosis led to drug discontinuation in one patient. The most commonly reported adverse reactions (≥ 20%) were infections, hypertension, infusion-related reactions, and pyrexia. Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 10% of patients during treatment with GAMIFANT are presented in Table 2.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 10% of Patients with Primary HLH
(N = 34)
|*Includes viral, bacterial, fungal, and infections in which no pathogen was identified
†Includes secondary hypertension
‡Includes events of drug eruption, pyrexia, rash, erythema, and hyperhidrosis
Additional selected adverse reactions (all grades) that were reported in less than 10% of patients treated with GAMIFANT included: vomiting, acute kidney injury, asthenia, bradycardia, dyspnea, gastro-intestinal hemorrhage, epistaxis, and peripheral edema.
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other emapalumab products may be misleading.
The immunogenicity of emapalumab-lzsg has been evaluated using an electrochemiluminescence-based immunoassay (ECLIA). A total of 64 subjects were evaluated for anti-therapeutic antibodies (ATAs) to emapalumab-lzsg after treatment with GAMIFANT. ATAs were detected in 3/64 subjects (5%) who received GAMIFANT.
Treatment-emergent ATAs were detected in 1/33 (3%) of patients in the primary HLH clinical trial. The ATAs in this patient were found to have neutralizing ability. One patient receiving GAMIFANT through compassionate use developed transient non-neutralizing treatment-emergent ATAs. In both of these patients, ATAs occurred within the first 9 weeks following the initiation of GAMIFANT treatment. In addition, one healthy subject tested positive for ATAs following a single dose of GAMIFANT. No evidence of an altered safety or efficacy profile was identified in the primary HLH patients who developed antibodies to emapalumab-lzsg.
SRC: NLM .