DACOGEN SIDE EFFECTS

  • Generic Name: decitabine injection
  • Brand Name: Dacogen
  • Drug Class: How Do Antineoplastic DNA Methylation Inhibitors Work? How Do Antineoplastic DNA Methylation Inhibitors Work?
Last updated on MDtodate: 10/05/2022

SIDE EFFECTS

The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety of DACOGEN was studied in 3 single-arm studies (N = 66, N = 98, N = 99) and 1 controlled supportive care study (N = 83 DACOGEN, N = 81 supportive care). The data described below reflect exposure to DACOGEN in 83 patients in the MDS trial. In the trial, patients received 15 mg/m² intravenously every 8 hours for 3 days every 6 weeks. The median number of DACOGEN cycles was 3 (range 0 to 9).

Most Common Adverse Reactions: neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, fatigue, pyrexia, nausea, cough, petechiae, constipation, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia.

Adverse Reactions Most Frequently (≥ 1%) Resulting in Clinical Intervention and or Dose Modification in the Controlled Supportive Care Study in the DACOGEN Arm:

Table 1 presents all adverse reactions occurring in at least 5% of patients in the DACOGEN group and at a rate greater than supportive care.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 5% of Patients in the DACOGEN Group andat a Rate Greater than Supportive Care in the Controlled Trial in MDS

DACOGEN
N = 83 (%)
Supportive Care
N = 81 (%)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Neutropenia 75 (90) 58 (72)
Thrombocytopenia 74 (89) 64 (79)
Anemia NOS 68 (82) 60 (74)
Febrile neutropenia 24 (29) 5 (6)
Leukopenia NOS 23(28) 11 (14)
Lymphadenopathy 10(12) 6 (7)
Thrombocythemia 4 (5) 1 (1)
Cardiac disorders
Pulmonary edema NOS 5 (6) 0 (0)
Eye disorders
Vision blurred 5 (6) 0 (0)
Gastrointestinal disorders
Nausea 35 (42) 13 (16)
Constipation 29 (35) 11 (14)
Diarrhea NOS 28 (34) 13 (16)
Vomiting NOS 21 (25) 7 (9)
Abdominal pain NOS 12 (14) 5 (6)
Oral mucosal petechiae 11 (13) 4 (5)
Stomatitis 10 (12) 5 (6)
Dyspepsia 10 (12) 1 (1)
Ascites 8 (10) 2 (2)
Gingival bleeding 7 (8) 5 (6)
Hemorrhoids 7 (8) 3 (4)
Loose stools 6 (7) 3 (4)
Tongue ulceration 6 (7) 2 (2)
Dysphagia 5 (6) 2 (2)
Oral soft tissue disorder NOS 5 (6) 1 (1)
Lip ulceration 4 (5) 3 (4)
Abdominal distension 4 (5) 1 (1)
Abdominal pain upper 4 (5) 1 (1)
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease 4 (5) 0 (0)
Glossodynia 4 (5) 0 (0)
General disorders and administrative site disorders
Pyrexia 44 (53) 23 (28)
Edema peripheral 21 (25) 13 (16)
Rigors 18 (22) 14 (17)
Edema NOS 15 (18) 5 (6)
Pain NOS 11 (13) 5 (6)
Lethargy 10 (12) 3 (4)
Tenderness NOS 9 (11) 0 (0)
Fall 7 (8) 3 (4)
Chest discomfort 6 (7) 3 (4)
Intermittent pyrexia 5 (6) 3 (4)
Malaise 4 (5) 1 (1)
Crepitations NOS 4 (5) 1 (1)
Catheter site erythema 4 (5) 1 (1)
Catheter site pain 4 (5) 0 (0)
Injection site swelling 4 (5) 0 (0)
Hepatobiliary disorders
Hyperbilirubinemia 12 (14) 4 (5)
Infections and infestations
Pneumonia NOS 18 (22) 11(14)
Cellulitis 10 (12) 6 (7)
Candidal infection NOS 8 (10) 1 (1)
Catheter related infection 7 (8) 0 (0)
Urinary tract infection NOS 6 (7) 1 (1)
Staphylococcal infection 6 (7) 0 (0)
Oral candidiasis 5 (6) 2 (2)
Sinusitis NOS 4 (5) 2 (2)
Bacteremia 4 (5) 0 (0)
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications
Transfusion reaction 6 (7) 3 (4)
Abrasion NOS 4 (5) 1 (1)
Investigations
Cardiac murmur NOS 13 (16) 9 (11)
Blood alkaline phosphatase NOS increased 9 (11) 7 (9)
Aspartate aminotransferase increased 8 (10) 7 (9)
Blood urea increased 8 (10) 1 (1)
Blood lactate dehydrogenase increased 7 (8) 5 (6)
Blood albumin decreased 6 (7) 0 (0)
Blood bicarbonate increased 5 (6) 1 (1)
Blood chloride decreased 5 (6) 1 (1)
Protein total decreased 4 (5) 3 (4)
Blood bicarbonate decreased 4 (5) 1 (1)
Blood bilirubin decreased 4 (5) 1 (1)
Metabolism and nutrition disorters
Hyperglycemia NOS 27 (33) 16 (20)
Hypoalbuminemia 20 (24) 14 (17)
Hypomagnesemia 20 (24) 6 (7)
Hypokalemia 18 (22) 10 (12)
Hyponatremia 16 (19) 13 (16)
Appetite decreased NOS 13 (16) 12 (15)
Anorexia 13 (16) 8 (10)
Hyperkalemia 11 (13) 3 (4)
Dehydration 5 (6) 4 (5)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Arthralgia 17 (20) 8 (10)
Pain in limb 16 (19) 8 (10)
Back pain 14 (17) 5 (6)
Chest wall pain 6 (7) 1 (1)
Musculoskeletal discomfort 5 (6) 0 (0)
Myalgia 4 (5) 1 (1)
Nervous system disorders
Headache 23(28) 11(14)
Dizziness 15 (18) 10 (12)
Hypoesthesia 9 (11) 1 (1)
Psychiatric disorders
Insomnia 23(28) 11 (14)
Confusional state 10(12) 3 (4)
Anxiety 9 (11) 8 (10)
Renal and urinary disorders
Dysuria 5 (6) 3 (4)
Urinary frequency 4 (5) 1 (1)
Respiratory, thoracic and Mediastinal disorders
Cough 33 (40) 25 (31)
Pharyngitis 13 (16) 6 (7)
Crackles lung 12 (14) 1 (1)
Breath sounds decreased 8 (10) 7 (9)
Hypoxia 8 (10) 4 (5)
Rales 7 (8) 2 (2)
Postnasal drip 4 (5) 2 (2)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Ecchymosis 18 (22) 12 (15)
Rash NOS 16 (19) 7 (9)
Erythema 12 (14) 5 (6)
Skin lesion NOS 9 (11) 3 (4)
Pruritis 9 (11) 2 (2)
Alopecia 7 (8) 1 (1)
Urticaria NOS 5 (6) 1 (1)
Swelling face 5 (6) 0 (0)
Vascular disorders
Petechiae 32 (39) 13 (16)
Pallor 19 (23) 10 (12)
Hypotension NOS 5 (6) 4 (5)
Hematoma NOS 4 (5) 3 (4)

 

In a single-arm MDS study (N=99), DACOGEN was dosed at 20 mg/m² intravenously, infused over one hour daily, for 5 consecutive days of a 4-week cycle. Table 2 presents all adverse reactions occurring in at least 5% of patients.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 5% of Patients in a Single-arm Study1

DACOGEN
N = 99 (%)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Anemia 31 (31)
Febrile neutropenia 20 (20)
Leukopenia 6 (6)
Neutropenia 38 (38)
Pancytopenia 5 (5)
Thrombocythemia 5 (5)
Thrombocytopenia 27 (27)
Cardiac disorders
Cardiac failure congestive 5 (5)
Tachycardia 8 (8)
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Ear pain 6 (6)
Gastrointestinal disorders
Abdominal pain 14 (14)
Abdominal pain upper 6(6)
Constipation 30 (30)
Diarrhea 28 (28)
Dyspepsia 10 (10)
Dysphagia 5 (5)
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease 5 (5)
Nausea 40 (40)
Oral pain 5 (5)
Stomatitis 11 (11)
Toothache 6 (6)
Vomiting 16 (16)
General disorders and administration site conditions
Asthenia 15 (15)
Chest pain 6 (6)
Chills 16 (16)
Fatigue 46 (46)
Mucosal inflammation 9 (9)
Edema 5 (5)
Edema peripheral 27 (27)
Pain 5 (5)
Pyrexia 36 (36)
Infections and infestations
Cellulitis 9 (9)
Oral candidiasis 6 (6)
Pneumonia 20 (20)
Sinusitis 6 (6)
Staphylococcal bacteremia 8 (8)
Tooth abscess 5 (5)
Upper respiratory tract infection 10 (10)
Urinary tract infection 7 (7)
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications
Contusion 9 (9)
Investigations
Blood bilirubin increased 6 (6)
Breath sounds abnormal 5 (5)
Weight decreased 9 (9)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Anorexia 23 (23)
Decreased appetite 8 (8)
Dehydration 8 (8)
Hyperglycemia 6 (6)
Hypokalemia 12 (12)
Hypomagnesemia 5 (5)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Arthralgia 17 (17)
Back pain 18 (18)
Bone pain 6 (6)
Muscle spasms 7 (7)
Muscular weakness 5 (5)
Musculoskeletal pain 5 (5)
Myalgia 9 (9)
Pain in extremity 18 (18)
Nervous system disorders
Dizziness 21 (21)
Headache 23 (23)
Psychiatric disorders
Anxiety 9 (9)
Confusional state 8 (8)
Depression 9 (9)
Insomnia 14 (14)
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Cough 27 (27)
Dyspnea 29 (29)
Epistaxis 13 (13)
Pharyngolaryngeal pain 8 (8)
Pleural effusion 5 (5)
Sinus congestion 5 (5)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Dry skin 8 (8)
Ecchymosis 9 (9)
Erythema 5 (5)
Night sweats 5 (5)
Petechiae 12 (12)
Pruritus 9 (9)
Rash 11 (11)
Skin lesion 5 (5)
Vascular disorders
Hypertension 6 (6)
Hypotension 11 (11)
1 In this single arm study, investigators reported adverse events based on clinical signs and symptoms rather than predefined laboratory abnormalities. Thus, not all laboratory abnormalities were recorded as adverse events.

 

No overall difference in safety was detected between patients > 65 years of age and younger patients in these MDS trials. No significant differences in safety were detected between males and females. Patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction were not studied. Insufficient numbers of non-White patients were available to draw conclusions in these clinical trials.

Serious adverse reactions that occurred in patients receiving DACOGEN not previously reported in Tables 1 and 2 include:

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of DACOGEN. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

 

SRC: NLM .