STEGLUJAN SIDE EFFECTS
- Generic Name: ertugliflozin and sitagliptin tablets
- Brand Name: Steglujan
- Drug Class: Antidiabetics, SGLT2 Inhibitors
Last updated on MDtodate: 10/11/2022
The following important adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Acute Kidney Injury and Impairment in Renal Function
- Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis
- Lower Limb Amputation
- Heart Failure
- Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use with Insulin and Insulin Secretagogues
- Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier’s gangrene)
- Genital Mycotic Infections
- Increases in Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C)
- Severe and Disabling Arthralgia
- Bullous Pemphigoid
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Ertugliflozin And Sitagliptin
The safety of concomitantly administered ertugliflozin and sitagliptin has been evaluated in 990 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated for 26 weeks in three studies; a factorial study of ertugliflozin 5 mg or 15 mg in combination with sitagliptin 100 mg once daily compared to the individual components, a placebo-controlled study of ertugliflozin 5 mg or 15 mg as add-on therapy to sitagliptin 100 mg and metformin once daily, and a placebo-controlled study of initial therapy with ertugliflozin 5 mg or 15 mg once daily in combination with sitagliptin 100 mg once daily. The incidence and type of adverse reactions in these three studies were similar to the adverse reactions seen with ertugliflozin and described below in Table 1.
Pool Of Placebo-Controlled Trials
The data in Table 1 are derived from a pool of three 26-week, placebo-controlled trials. Ertugliflozin was used as monotherapy in one trial and as add-on therapy in two trials. These data reflect exposure of 1,029 patients to ertugliflozin with a mean exposure duration of approximately 25 weeks. Patients received ertugliflozin 5 mg (N=519), ertugliflozin 15 mg (N=510), or placebo (N=515) once daily. The mean age of the population was 57 years and 2% were older than 75 years of age. Fifty-three percent (53%) of the population was male and 73% were Caucasian, 15% were Asian, and 7% were Black or African American. At baseline the population had diabetes for an average of 7.5 years, had a mean HbA1c of 8.1%, and 19.4% had established microvascular complications of diabetes. Baseline renal function (mean eGFR 88.9 mL/min/1.73 m²) was normal or mildly impaired in 97% of patients and moderately impaired in 3% of patients.
Table 1 shows common adverse reactions associated with the use of ertugliflozin. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on ertugliflozin than on placebo, and occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with either ertugliflozin 5 mg or ertugliflozin 15 mg.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥2% of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes MellitusTreated with Ertugliflozin* and Greater than Placebo in Pooled Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studiesof Ertugliflozin Monotherapy or Combination Therapy
|Number (%) of Patients|
N = 515
|Ertugliflozin 5 mg
N = 519
|Ertugliflozin 15 mg
N = 510
|Female genital mycotic infections†||3.0%||9.1%||12.2%|
|Male genital mycotic infections‡||0.4%||3.7%||4.2%|
|Urinary tract infections§||3.9%||4.0%||4.1%|
|* The three placebo controlled studies included one monotherapy trial and two add-on combination trials with metformin or with metformin and sitagliptin.
†Includes: genital candidiasis, genital infection fungal, vaginal infection, vulvitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginal mycotic infection, and vulvovaginitis. Percentages calculated with the number of female patients in each group as denominator: placebo (N=235), ertugliflozin 5 mg (N=252), ertugliflozin 15 mg (N=245).
‡ Includes: balanitis candida, balanoposthitis, genital infection, and genital infection fungal. Percentages calculated with the number of male patients in each group as denominator: placebo (N=280), ertugliflozin 5 mg (N=267), ertugliflozin 15 mg (N=265).
§Includes: cystitis, dysuria, streptococcal urinary tract infection, urethritis, urinary tract infection.
¶ Includes: vulvovaginal pruritus and pruritus genital. Percentages calculated with the number of female patients in each group as denominator: placebo (N=235), ertugliflozin 5 mg (N=252), ertugliflozin 15 mg (N=245).
# Includes: pollakiuria, micturition urgency, polyuria, urine output increased, and nocturia.
Þ Includes: thirst, dry mouth, polydipsia, and dry throat.
Ertugliflozin causes an osmotic diuresis, which may lead to intravascular volume contraction and adverse reactions related to volume depletion, particularly in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m²). In patients with moderate renal impairment, adverse reactions related to volume depletion (e.g., dehydration, dizziness postural, presyncope, syncope, hypotension, and orthostatic hypotension) were reported in 0%, 4.4%, and 1.9% of patients treated with placebo, ertugliflozin 5 mg, and ertugliflozin 15 mg, respectively. Ertugliflozin may also increase the risk of hypotension in other patients at risk for volume contraction.
Across the clinical program, ketoacidosis was identified in 3 of 3,409 (0.1%) ertugliflozin-treated patients and 0.0% of comparator-treated patients.
Impairment In Renal Function
Treatment with ertugliflozin was associated with increases in serum creatinine and decreases in eGFR (see Table 2). Patients with moderate renal impairment at baseline had larger mean changes. In a study in patients with moderate renal impairment, these abnormal laboratory findings were observed to reverse after treatment discontinuation [see Use In Specific Populations].
Table 2: Changes from Baseline in Serum Creatinine and eGFR in the Pool of Three 26-Week Placebo-Controlled Studies and a 26-Week Moderate Renal Impairment Study in Patients withType 2 Diabetes Mellitus
|Pool of 26-Week Placebo-Controlled Studies|
|Ertugliflozin 5 mg
|Ertugliflozin 15 mg
|Baseline Mean||Creatinine (mg/dL)||0.83||0.82||0.82|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||89.5||88.2||89.0|
|Week 6 Change||Creatinine (mg/dL)||0.00||0.03||0.03|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||-0.3||-2.7||-3.1|
|Week 26 Change||Creatinine (mg/dL)||-0.01||0.00||0.01|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||0.7||0.5||-0.6|
|Moderate Renal Impairment Study|
|Ertugliflozin 5 mg
|Ertugliflozin 15 mg
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||46.0||46.8||46.9|
|Week 6 Change||Creatinine (mg/dL)||-0.02||0.11||0.12|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||0.6||-3.2||-4.1|
|Week 26 Change||Creatinine (mg/dL)||0.02||0.08||0.10|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||0.0||-2.7||-2.6|
Renal-related adverse reactions (e.g., acute kidney injury, renal impairment, acute prerenal failure) may occur in patients treated with ertugliflozin, particularly in patients with moderate renal impairment where the incidence of renal-related adverse reactions was 0.6%, 2.5%, and 1.3% in patients treated with placebo, ertugliflozin 5 mg, and ertugliflozin 15 mg, respectively.
Lower Limb Amputation
Across seven Phase 3 clinical trials in which ertugliflozin was studied as monotherapy and in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents, non-traumatic lower limb amputations occurred in 1 of 1,450 (0.1%) in the non-ertugliflozin group, 3 of 1,716 (0.2%) in the ertugliflozin 5 mg group, and 8 of 1,693 (0.5%) in the ertugliflozin 15 mg group.
The incidence of hypoglycemia by study is shown in Table 3.
Table 3: Incidence of Overall* and Severe† Hypoglycemia in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies inPatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
|Factorial Study with Sitagliptin as Add-on Combination Therapy with Metformin (26 weeks)||Ertugliflozin 5 mg + Sitagliptin
(N = 243)
|Ertugliflozin 15 mg + Sitagliptin
(N = 244)
|Overall [N (%)]||13 (5.3)||22 (9.0)|
|Severe [N (%)]||0 (0.0)||1 (0.4)|
|Add-on Combination Therapy with Metformin and Sitagliptin (26 weeks)||Placebo
(N = 153)
|Ertugliflozin 5 mg
(INI = 156)
|Ertugliflozin 15 mg
(INI = 153)
|Overall [N (%)]||5 (3.3)||7 (4.5)||3 (2.0)|
|Severe [N (%)]||1 (0.7)||1 (0.6)||0 (0.0)|
|Initial Combination Therapy with Sitagliptin (26 weeks)||Placebo
(N = 97)
|Ertugliflozin 5 mg + Sitagliptin
(N = 98)
|Ertugliflozin 15 mg + Sitagliptin
(N = 96)
|Overall [N (%)]||1 (1.0)||6(6.1)||3(3.1)|
|Severe [N (%)]||0 (0.0)||0 (0.0)||2(2.1)|
|* Overall hypoglycemic events: plasma or capillary glucose of less than or equal to 70 mg/dL.
†Severe hypoglycemic events: required assistance, lost consciousness, or experienced a seizure regardless of blood glucose.
Genital Mycotic Infections
In the pool of three placebo-controlled clinical trials, the incidence of female genital mycotic infections (e.g., genital candidiasis, genital infection fungal, vaginal infection, vulvitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vulvovaginitis) occurred in 3%, 9.1%, and 12.2% of females treated with placebo, ertugliflozin 5 mg, and ertugliflozin 15 mg, respectively (see Table 1). In females, discontinuation due to genital mycotic infections occurred in 0% and 0.6% of patients treated with placebo and ertugliflozin, respectively.
In the same pool, male genital mycotic infections (e.g., balanitis candida, balanoposthitis, genital infection, genital infection fungal) occurred in 0.4%, 3.7%, and 4.2% of males treated with placebo, ertugliflozin 5 mg, ertugliflozin 15 mg, respectively (see Table 1). Male genital mycotic infections occurred more commonly in uncircumcised males. In males, discontinuations due to genital mycotic infections occurred in 0% and 0.2% of patients treated with placebo and ertugliflozin, respectively. Phimosis was reported in 8 of 1,729 (0.5%) male ertugliflozin-treated patients, of which four required circumcision.
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported in clinical studies with sitagliptin: upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea. In addition, in a study of sitagliptin as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone, peripheral edema was noted with a higher incidence than placebo.
In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the overall incidence of adverse reactions of hypoglycemia was 1.2% in patients treated with sitagliptin 100 mg and 0.9% in patients treated with placebo. In the add-on to sulfonylurea and add-on to insulin studies, hypoglycemia was also more commonly reported in patients treated with sitagliptin compared to placebo. In the add-on to glimepiride (+/-metformin) study, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 12.2% in patients treated with sitagliptin 100 mg and 1.8% in patients treated with placebo. In the add-on to insulin (+/-metformin) study, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 15.5% in patients treated with sitagliptin 100 mg and 7.8% in patients treated with placebo. In all studies, adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia. A concurrent blood glucose measurement was not required although most (74%) reports of hypoglycemia were accompanied by a blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL.
In a pooled analysis of 19 double-blind clinical trials that included data from 10,246 patients randomized to receive sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N=5,429) or corresponding (active or placebo) control (N=4,817), the incidence of non-adjudicated acute pancreatitis events was 0.1 per 100 patient-years in each group (4 patients with an event in 4,708 patient-years for sitagliptin and 4 patients with an event in 3,942 patient-years for control).
Increases In Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C)
In the pool of three placebo-controlled trials, dose-related increases in LDL-C were observed in patients treated with ertugliflozin. Mean percent changes from baseline to Week 26 in LDL-C relative to placebo were 2.6% and 5.4% with ertugliflozin 5 mg and ertugliflozin 15 mg, respectively. The range of mean baseline LDL-C was 96.6 to 97.7 mg/dL across treatment groups.
Increases In Hemoglobin
In the pool of three placebo-controlled trials, mean changes (percent changes) from baseline to Week 26 in hemoglobin were -0.21 g/dL (-1.4%) with placebo, 0.46 g/dL (3.5%) with ertugliflozin 5 mg, and 0.48 g/dL (3.5%) with ertugliflozin 15 mg. The range of mean baseline hemoglobin was 13.90 to 14.00 g/dL across treatment groups. At the end of treatment, 0.0%, 0.2%, and 0.4% of patients treated with placebo, ertugliflozin 5 mg, and ertugliflozin 15 mg, respectively, had a hemoglobin increase greater than 2 g/dL and above the upper limit of normal.
Increases In Serum Phosphate
In the pool of three placebo-controlled trials, mean changes (percent changes) from baseline in serum phosphate were 0.04 mg/dL (1.9%) with placebo, 0.21 mg/dL (6.8%) with ertugliflozin 5 mg, and 0.26 mg/dL (8.5%) with ertugliflozin 15 mg. The range of mean baseline serum phosphate was 3.53 to 3.54 mg/dL across treatment groups. In a clinical trial of patients with moderate renal impairment, mean changes (percent changes) from baseline at Week 26 in serum phosphate were -0.01 mg/dL (0.8%) with placebo, 0.29 mg/dL (9.7%) with ertugliflozin 5 mg, and 0.24 mg/dL (7.8%) with ertugliflozin 15 mg.
Across clinical studies, the incidence of laboratory adverse reactions was similar in patients treated with sitagliptin 100 mg compared to patients treated with placebo. A small increase in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed due to an increase in neutrophils. This increase in WBC (of approximately 200 cells/microL vs. placebo, in four pooled placebo-controlled clinical studies, with a mean baseline WBC count of approximately 6,600 cells/microL) is not considered to be clinically relevant. In a 12-week study of 91 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, 37 patients with moderate renal insufficiency were randomized to sitagliptin 50 mg daily, while 14 patients with the same magnitude of renal impairment were randomized to placebo. Mean (SE) increases in serum creatinine were observed in patients treated with sitagliptin [0.12 mg/dL (0.04)] and in patients treated with placebo [0.07 mg/dL (0.07)]. The clinical significance of this added increase in serum creatinine relative to placebo is not known.
Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of sitagliptin, a component of STEGLUJAN, as monotherapy and/or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria, cutaneous vasculitis, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome; hepatic enzyme elevations; acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis ; worsening renal function, including acute renal failure (sometimes requiring dialysis) ; severe and disabling arthralgia; bullous pemphigoid ; constipation; vomiting; headache; myalgia; pain in extremity; back pain; pruritus; mouth ulceration; stomatitis; rhabdomyolysis.
Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier’s gangrene) have been seen with SGLT2 inhibitors
SRC: NLM .