ETIFIBATIDE INJECTION SIDE EFFECTS
- Generic Name: etifibatide injection
- Brand Name: Integrilin (etifibatide) Injection
The following serious adverse reaction is also discussed elsewhere in the labeling:
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
A total of 16,782 patients were treated in the Phase III clinical trials (PURSUIT, ESPRIT and IMPACT II). These 16,782 patients had a mean age of 62 years (range: 20 to 94 years). Eighty-nine percent of the patients were Caucasian, with the remainder being predominantly Black (5%) and Hispanic (5%). Sixty-eight percent were men. Because of the different regimens used in PURSUIT, IMPACT II and ESPRIT, data from the 3 studies were not pooled.
Bleeding and hypotension were the most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 5% and greater than placebo) in the eptifibatide controlled clinical trial database.
The incidence of bleeding and transfusions in the PURSUIT and ESPRIT studies are shown in Table 2. Bleeding was classified as major or minor by the criteria of the TIMI study group. Major bleeding consisted of intracranial hemorrhage and other bleeding that led to decreases in hemoglobin greater than 5 g/dL. Minor bleeding included spontaneous gross hematuria, spontaneous hematemesis, other observed blood loss with a hemoglobin decrease of more than 3 g/dL and other hemoglobin decreases that were greater than 4 g/dL but less than 5 g/dL. In patients who received transfusions, the corresponding loss in hemoglobin was estimated through an adaptation of the method of Landefeld et al.
Table 1: Bleeding and Trans fusions in the PURSUIT and ESPRIT Studies
|Major bleeding*||425 (9.3%)||498 (10.8%)|
|Minor bleeding*||347 (7.6%)||604 (13.1%)|
|Requiring transfusions†||490 (10.4%)||601 (12.8%)|
|Major bleeding*||4 (0.4%)||13 (1.3%)|
|Minor bleeding*||18 (2%)||29 (3%)|
|Requiring transfusions†||11 (1.1%)||16 (1.5%)|
|Note: Denominator is based on patients for whom data are available.
* For major and minor bleeding, patients are counted only once according to the most severe classification.
†Includes transfusions of whole blood, packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, platelets and autotransfusion during the initial hospitalization.
The majority of major bleeding reactions in the ESPRIT study occurred at the vascular access site (1 and 8 patients, or 0.1% and 0.8% in the placebo and eptifibatide groups, respectively). Bleeding at “other” locations occurred in 0.2% and 0.4% of patients, respectively.
In the PURSUIT study, the greatest increase in major bleeding in eptifibatide-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients was also associated with bleeding at the femoral artery access site (2.8% versus 1.3%). Oropharyngeal (primarily gingival), genitourinary, gastrointestinal and retroperitoneal bleeding were also seen more commonly in eptifibatide-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients.
Among patients experiencing a major bleed in the IMPACT II study, an increase in bleeding on eptifibatide versus placebo was observed only for the femoral artery access site (3.2% versus 2.8%).
Table 3 displays the incidence of TIMI major bleeding according to the cardiac procedures carried out in the PURSUIT study. The most common bleeding complications were related to cardiac revascularization (CABG-related or femoral artery access site bleeding). A corresponding table for ESPRIT is not presented, as every patient underwent PCI in the ESPRIT study and only 11 patients underwent CABG.
Table 2: Major Bleeding by Procedures in the PURSUIT Study
|Overall incidence of major bleeding Breakdown by procedure:||425 (9.3%)||498 (10.8%)|
|CABG||375 (8.2%)||377 (8.2%)|
|Angioplasty without CABG||27 (0.6%)||64 (1.4%)|
|Angiography without angioplasty or CABG||11 (0.2%)||29 (0.6%)|
|Medical therapy only||12 (0.3%)||28 (0.6%)|
|Note: Denominators are based on the total number of patients whose TIMI classification was resolved.|
In the PURSUIT and ESPRIT studies, the risk of major bleeding with eptifibatide increased as patient weight decreased. This relationship was most apparent for patients weighing less than 70 kg.
Bleeding resulting in discontinuation of the study drug was more frequent among patients receiving eptifibatide than placebo (4.6% versus 0.9% in ESPRIT, 8% versus 1% in PURSUIT, 3.5% versus 1.9% in IMPACT II).
Intracranial Hemorrhage And Stroke
Intracranial hemorrhage was rare in the PURSUIT, IMPACT II and ESPRIT clinical studies. In the PURSUIT study, 3 patients in the placebo group, 1 patient in the group treated with eptifibatide 180/1.3 and 5 patients in the group treated with eptifibatide 180/2 experienced a hemorrhagic stroke. The overall incidence of stroke was 0.5% in patients receiving eptifibatide 180/1.3, 0.7% in patients receiving eptifibatide 180/2 and 0.8% in placebo patients.
In the IMPACT II study, intracranial hemorrhage was experienced by 1 patient treated with eptifibatide 135/0.5, 2 patients treated with eptifibatide 135/0.75 and 2 patients in the placebo group. The overall incidence of stroke was 0.5% in patients receiving 135/0.5 eptifibatide, 0.7% in patients receiving eptifibatide 135/0.75 and 0.7% in the placebo group.
In the ESPRIT study, there were 3 hemorrhagic strokes, 1 in the placebo group and 2 in the eptifibatide group. In addition there was 1 case of cerebral infarction in the eptifibatide group.
The potential for development of antibodies to eptifibatide has been studied in 433 subjects. Eptifibatide was nonantigenic in 412 patients receiving a single administration of eptifibatide (135-mcg/kg bolus followed by a continuous infusion of either 0.5 mcg/kg/min or 0.75 mcg/kg/min), and in 21 subjects to whom eptifibatide (135-mcg/kg bolus followed by a continuous infusion of 0.75 mcg/kg/min) was administered twice, 28 days apart. In both cases, plasma for antibody detection was collected approximately 30 days after each dose. The development of antibodies to eptifibatide at higher doses has not been evaluated.
In patients with suspected eptifibatide -related immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, IgG antibodies that react with the GP IIb/IIIa complex were identified in the presence of eptifibatide and in eptifibatidenaïve patients. These findings suggest acute thrombocytopenia after the administration of eptifibatide can develop as a result of naturally occurring drug-dependent antibodies or those induced by prior exposure to eptifibatide. Similar antibodies were identified with other GP IIb/IIIa ligand-mimetic agents. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia with eptifibatide may be associated with hypotension and/or other signs of hypersensitivity.
In the PURSUIT and IMPACT II studies, the incidence of thrombocytopenia ( < 100,000/mm³ or ≥ 50% reduction from baseline) and the incidence of platelet transfusions were similar between patients treated with eptifibatide and placebo. In the ESPRIT study, the incidence was 0.6% in the placebo group and 1.2% in the eptifibatide group.
Other Adverse Reactions
In the PURSUIT and ESPRIT studies, the incidence of serious nonbleeding adverse reactions was similar in patients receiving placebo or eptifibatide (19% and 19%, respectively, in PURSUIT; 6% and 7%, respectively, in ESPRIT). In PURSUIT, the only serious nonbleeding adverse reaction that occurred at a rate of at least 1% and was more common with eptifibatide than placebo (7% versus 6%) was hypotension. Most of the serious nonbleeding adverse reactions consisted of cardiovascular reactions typical of a UA population. In the IMPACT II study, serious nonbleeding adverse reactions that occurred in greater than 1% of patients were uncommon and similar in incidence between placeboand eptifibatide-treated patients.
Discontinuation of study drug due to adverse reactions other than bleeding was uncommon in the PURSUIT, IMPACT II and ESPRIT studies, with no single reaction occurring in > 0.5% of the study population (except for 'other' in the ESPRIT study).
Because the reactions below are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following adverse reactions have been reported in postmarketing experience, primarily with eptifibatide in combination with heparin and aspirin: cerebral, GI and pulmonary hemorrhage. Fatal bleeding reactions have been reported. Acute profound thrombocytopenia, as well as immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, has been reported.
SRC: NLM .