ADMELOG SIDE EFFECTS
- Generic Name: insulin lispro injection
- Brand Name: Admelog
- Drug Class: Antidiabetics, Insulins, Antidiabetics, Rapid-Acting Insulins
The following adverse reactions are also discussed elsewhere:
- Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Two clinical trials with ADMELOG were conducted: one in patients with type 1 diabetes and one in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The data in Table 1 reflect the exposure of 252 patients with type 1 diabetes to ADMELOG with mean exposure duration of 49 weeks. The type 1 diabetes population had the following characteristics: Mean age was 43 years and mean duration of diabetes was 20 years. Fifty-nine percent were male, 80% were White, 6% were Black or African American and 7% were Hispanic. At baseline, the mean eGFR was 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 49% of patients had eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean BMI was 26 kg/m2. The mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.07%.
Two hundred fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes were exposed to ADMELOG with mean exposure duration of 25 weeks. The type 2 diabetes population had the following characteristics: Mean age was 62 years and mean duration of diabetes was 17 years. Fifty-four percent were male, 90% were White, 6% were Black or African American and 17% were Hispanic. At baseline, the mean eGFR was 77 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 27% of patients had eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean BMI was 32 kg/m2. The mean HbA1c at baseline was 7.99%.
Common adverse reactions were defined as reactions occurring in ≥5% of the population studied.
Common adverse reactions (other than hypoglycemia) during a clinical trial in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are listed in Table 1. In a 26-week clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, no adverse reactions (other than hypoglycemia) occurring in ≥5% of ADMELOG-treated patients (n=253) were observed.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of ADMELOG-Treated Patients with Type 1 Diabetes in a 52-Week Trial
|ADMELOG + Insulin Glargine (100 units/mL), %
|Upper respiratory tract infection||6.0%|
Hypoglycemia is the most commonly observed adverse reaction in patients using insulin, including ADMELOG [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The rates of reported hypoglycemia depend on the definition of hypoglycemia used, diabetes type, insulin dose, intensity of glucose control, background therapies, and other intrinsic and extrinsic patient factors. For these reasons, comparing rates of hypoglycemia in clinical trials for ADMELOG with the incidence of hypoglycemia for other products may be misleading and also, may not be representative of hypoglycemia rates that will occur in clinical practice.
In the ADMELOG trials, severe hypoglycemia was defined as an event requiring assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or other resuscitative actions. The incidence of severe hypoglycemia in patients receiving ADMELOG with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus was 13.5% at 52 weeks and 2.4% at 26 weeks, respectively.
Insulin Initiation And Intensification Of Glucose Control
Intensification or rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with a transitory, reversible ophthalmologic refraction disorder, worsening of diabetic retinopathy, and acute painful peripheral neuropathy. However, long-term glycemic control decreases the risk of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.
Long-term use of insulin, including ADMELOG, can cause lipodystrophy at the site of repeated insulin injections or infusion. Lipodystrophy includes lipohypertrophy (thickening of adipose tissue) and lipoatrophy (thinning of adipose tissue) and may affect insulin absorption. Rotate insulin injection or infusion sites within the same region to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy.
Weight gain can occur with insulin therapy, including ADMELOG, and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin and the decrease in glucosuria.
Insulin, including ADMELOG, may cause sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.
Adverse Reactions With Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII)
In a randomized, open-label crossover study in adult patients with type 1 diabetes treated over two 4-week periods, the incidence of infusion set occlusions (defined as failure to correct hyperglycemia [plasma glucose ≥300 mg/dL] by insulin bolus via insulin pump) in ADMELOG-treated patients (n=25) was evaluated. Infusion-set occlusions were reported by 24% of patients.
In a randomized, 16-week, open-label, parallel design study of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, adverse event reports related to infusion-site reactions for another insulin lispro product, 100 units/mL, occurred in 21% of patients. The most frequently reported infusion site adverse events were infusion site erythema and infusion site reaction.
As with any insulin therapy, patients taking ADMELOG may experience redness, swelling, or itching at the site of the injection. These minor reactions usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks, but in some occasions may require discontinuation of ADMELOG. In some instances, these reactions may be related to factors other than insulin, such as irritants in a skin cleansing agent or poor injection technique.
Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, may occur with any insulin, including ADMELOG. Generalized allergy to insulin may cause whole body rash (including pruritus), dyspnea, wheezing, hypotension, tachycardia, or diaphoresis.
Localized reactions and generalized myalgias have been reported with injected metacresol, which is an excipient in ADMELOG.
Consistent with the potentially immunogenic properties of protein and peptide pharmaceuticals, patients treated with ADMELOG may develop antiinsulin antibodies. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay and may be influenced by several factors such as assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medication, and underlying disease. For these reasons, the incidence of antibodies to ADMELOG in the studies described below cannot be directly compared with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products.
In a 52-week study of ADMELOG in type 1 diabetes patients, 49.4% were positive at baseline and 22.6% had treatment-emergent ADA (i.e., either new ADA, or increase in titer of at least 4-fold).
In a 26-week study of ADMELOG in type 2 diabetes patients, 26.4% were positive at baseline and 18.8% had treatment-emergent ADA (i.e., either new ADA, or increase in titer of at least 4-fold).
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of another insulin lispro product, 100 units/mL. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Medication errors in which other insulins have been accidentally substituted for another insulin lispro product, 100 units/mL, have been identified during postapproval use.
Localized cutaneous amyloidosis at the injection site has occurred. Hyperglycemia has been reported with repeated insulin injections into areas of localized cutaneous amyloidosis; hypoglycemia has been reported with a sudden change to an unaffected injection site.
SRC: NLM .