SEMGLEE SIDE EFFECTS

  • Generic Name: insulin glargine injection
  • Brand Name: Semglee
  • Drug Class: Antidiabetics, Insulins, Antidiabetics, Long-Acting Insulins
Last updated on MDtodate: 10/11/2022

SIDE EFFECTS

The following adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere:

  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions
  • Hypokalemia

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trial of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The data in Table 1 reflect the exposure of 2327 patients with type 1 diabetes to insulin glargine or NPH. The type 1 diabetes population had the following characteristics: Mean age was 38.5 years. Fifty four percent were male, 96.9% were Caucasian, 1.8% were Black or African American and 2.7% were Hispanic. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg/m².

The data in Table 2 reflect the exposure of 1563 patients with type 2 diabetes to insulin glargine or NPH. The type 2 diabetes population had the following characteristics: Mean age was 59.3 years. Fifty eight percent were male, 86.7% were Caucasian, 7.8% were Black or African American and 9% were Hispanic. The mean BMI was 29.2 kg/m².

The frequencies of adverse events during insulin glargine clinical trials in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus are listed in the tables below.

Table 1: Adverse Events in Pooled Clinical Trials up to 28 Weeks Duration in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 5%)

Insulin Glargine, %
(n = 1257)
NPH,%
(n = 1070)
Upper respiratory tract infection 22.4 23.1
Infection* 9.4 10.3
Accidental injury 5.7 6.4
Headache 5.5 4.7
* Body system not specified

 

Table 2: Adverse Events in Pooled Clinical Trials up to 1 Year Duration in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 5%)

Insulin Glargine, %
(n = 849)
NPH,%
(n = 714)
Upper respiratory tract infection 11.4 13.3
Infection* 10.4 11.6
Retinal vascular disorder 5.8 7.4
* Body system not specified

 

Table 3: Adverse Events in a 5 Year Trial of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 10%)

Insulin Glargine, %
(n = 514)
NPH,%
(n = 503)
Upper respiratory tract infection 29.0 33.6
Edema peripheral 20.0 22.7
Hypertension 19.6 18.9
Influenza 18.7 19.5
Sinusitis 18.5 17.9
Cataract 18.1 15.9
Bronchitis 15.2 14.1
Arthralgia 14.2 16.1
Pain in extremity 13.0 13.1
Back pain 12.8 12.3
Cough 12.1 7.4
Urinary tract infection 10.7 10.1
Diarrhea 10.7 10.3
Depression 10.5 9.7
Headache 10.3 9.3

 

Table 4: Adverse Events in a 28-Week Clinical Trial of Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 5%)

Insulin Glargine, %
(n = 174)
NPH,%
(n = 175)
Infection* 13.8 17.7
Upper respiratory tract infection 13.8 16.0
Pharyngitis 7.5 8.6
Rhinitis 5.2 5.1
* Body system not specified

 

Severe Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is the most commonly observed adverse reaction in patients using insulins, including insulin glargine products. Tables 5, and 6, and 7 summarize the incidence of severe hypoglycemia in the insulin glargine individual clinical trials. Severe symptomatic hypoglycemia was defined as an event with symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia requiring the assistance of another person and associated with either a blood glucose below 50 mg/dL (≤ 56 mg/dL in the 5-year trial and ≤ 36 mg/dL in the ORIGIN trial) or prompt recovery after oral carbohydrate, intravenous glucose or glucagon administration.

Percentages of insulin glargine-treated adult patients experiencing severe symptomatic hypoglycemia in the insulin glargine clinical trials were comparable to percentages of NPH-treated patients for all treatment regimens (see Tables 5 and 6). In the pediatric phase 3 clinical trial, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a higher incidence of severe symptomatic hypoglycemia in the two treatment groups compared to the adult trials with type 1 diabetes.

Table 5: Severe Symptomatic Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

Study A Type 1 Diabetes Adults 28 weeks In combination with regular insulin Study B Type 1 Diabetes Adults 28 weeks In combination with regular insulin Study C Type 1 Diabetes Adults 16 weeks In combination with insulin lispro Study D Type 1 Diabetes Pediatrics 26 weeks In combination with regular insulin
Insulin Glargine
N = 292
NPH
N = 293
Insulin Glargine
N = 264
NPH
N = 270
Insulin Glargine
N = 310
NPH
N = 309
Insulin Glargine
N = 174
NPH
N = 175
Percent of patients 10.6 15.0 8.7 10.4 6.5 5.2 23.0 28.6

 

Table 6: Severe Symptomatic Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

40% Study E Type 2 Diabetes Adults 52 weeks In combination with oral agents Study F Type 2 Diabetes Adults 28 weeks In combination with regular insulin Study G Type 2 Diabetes Adults 5 years In combination with regular insulin
Insulin Glargine
N = 289
NPH
N = 281
Insulin Glargine
N = 259
NPH
N = 259
Insulin Glargine
N = 513
NPH
N = 504
Percent of patients 1.7 1.1 0.4 2.3 7.8 11.9

 

Table 7 displays the proportion of patients experiencing severe symptomatic hypoglycemia in the insulin glargine and Standard Care groups in the ORIGIN Trial.

Table 7: Severe Symptomatic Hypoglycemia in the ORIGIN Trial

ORIGIN Trial Medium duration of follow-up: 6.2 years
Insulin Glargine
N = 6231
Standard Care
N = 6273
Percent of patients 5.6 1.8

 

Peripheral Edema

Some patients taking insulin glargine products have experienced sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.

Lipodystrophy

Administration of insulin subcutaneously, including insulin glargine products, has resulted in lipoatrophy (depression in the skin) or lipohypertrophy (enlargement or thickening of tissue) in some patients.

Insulin Initiation And Intensification Of Glucose Control

Intensification or rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with a transitory, reversible ophthalmologic refraction disorder, worsening of diabetic retinopathy, and acute painful peripheral neuropathy. However, long-term glycemic control decreases the risk of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.

Weight Gain

Weight gain has occurred with some insulin therapies including insulin glargine products and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin and the decrease in glucosuria.

Allergic Reactions

Local Allergy: As with any insulin therapy, patients taking insulin glargine products may experience injection site reactions, including redness, pain, itching, urticaria, edema, and inflammation. In clinical studies in adult patients, there was a higher incidence of treatment-emergent injection site pain in insulin glargine-treated patients (2.7%) compared to NPH insulin-treated patients (0.7%). The reports of pain at the injection site did not result in discontinuation of therapy.

Systemic Allergy

Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, generalized skin reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and shock may occur with any insulin, including insulin glargine products and may be life threatening.

Immunogenicity

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other insulin glargine products may be misleading.

All insulin products can elicit the formation of insulin antibodies. The presence of such insulin antibodies may increase or decrease the efficacy of insulin and may require adjustment of the insulin dose. In phase 3 clinical trials of insulin glargine, increases in titers of antibodies to insulin were observed in NPH insulin and insulin glargine treatment groups with similar incidences.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of insulin glargine products. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Medication errors have been reported in which other insulins, particularly rapid-acting insulins, have been accidentally administered instead of insulin glargine products. To avoid medication errors between SEMGLEE and other insulins, patients should be instructed to always verify the insulin label before each injection.

Localized cutaneous amyloidosis at the injection site has occurred. Hyperglycemia has been reported with repeated insulin injections into areas of localized cutaneous amyloidosis; hypoglycemia has been reported with a sudden change to an unaffected injection site.

 

SRC: NLM .