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  • Generic Name: linagliptin and metformin hydrochloride
  • Brand Name: Jentadueto
  • Drug Class: Antidiabetics, Biguanides/Dipeptyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors
Last updated on MDtodate: 10/7/2022


Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.


The safety of concomitantly administered linagliptin (daily dose 5 mg) and metformin (mean daily dose of approximately 1800 mg) has been evaluated in 2816 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated for ≥12 weeks in clinical trials.

Three placebo-controlled studies with linagliptin + metformin were conducted: 2 studies were 24 weeks in duration, 1 study was 12 weeks in duration. In the 3 placebo-controlled clinical studies, adverse reactions which occurred in ≥5% of patients receiving linagliptin + metformin (n=875) and were more common than in patients given placebo + metformin (n=539) included nasopharyngitis (5.7% vs 4.3%).

In a 24-week factorial design study, adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients receiving linagliptin + metformin and were more common than in patients given placebo are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥5% of Patients Treated with Linagliptin + Metformin and Greater than with Placebo in a 24-week Factorial-Design Study

Linagliptin Monotherapy
Metformin Monotherapy
Combination of Linagliptin with Metformin
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Nasopharyngitis 1 (1.4) 8 (5.6) 8 (2.7) 18 (6.3)
Diarrhea 2 (2.8) 5 (3.5) 11 (3.8) 18 (6.3)


Other adverse reactions reported in clinical studies with treatment of linagliptin + metformin were hypersensitivity (e.g., urticaria, angioedema, or bronchial hyperreactivity), cough, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and pancreatitis.


Adverse reactions reported in ≥2% of patients treated with linagliptin 5 mg and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo included: nasopharyngitis (7.0% vs 6.1%), diarrhea (3.3% vs 3.0%), and cough (2.1% vs 1.4%).

Rates for other adverse reactions for linagliptin 5 mg vs placebo when linagliptin was used in combination with specific anti-diabetic agents were: urinary tract infection (3.1% vs 0%) and hypertriglyceridemia (2.4% vs 0%) when linagliptin was used as add-on to sulfonylurea; hyperlipidemia (2.7% vs 0.8%) and weight increased (2.3% vs 0.8%) when linagliptin was used as add-on to pioglitazone; and constipation (2.1% vs 1%) when linagliptin was used as add-on to basal insulin therapy.

Other adverse reactions reported in clinical studies with treatment of linagliptin monotherapy were hypersensitivity (e.g., urticaria, angioedema, localized skin exfoliation, or bronchial hyperreactivity) and myalgia. In the clinical trial program, pancreatitis was reported in 15.2 cases per 10,000 patient year exposure while being treated with linagliptin compared with 3.7 cases per 10,000 patient year exposure while being treated with comparator (placebo and active comparator, sulfonylurea). Three additional cases of pancreatitis were reported following the last administered dose of linagliptin.


The most common adverse reactions due to initiation of metformin are diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, flatulence, asthenia, indigestion, abdominal discomfort, and headache.

In a 24-week clinical trial in which extended-release metformin or placebo was added to glyburide therapy, the most common (>5% and greater than placebo) adverse reactions in the combined treatment group were hypoglycemia (13.7% vs 4.9%), diarrhea (12.5% vs 5.6%), and nausea (6.7% vs 4.2%).



In a 24-week factorial design study, hypoglycemia was reported in 4 (1.4%) of 286 subjects treated with linagliptin + metformin, 6 (2.1%) of 291 subjects treated with metformin, and 1 (1.4%) of 72 subjects treated with placebo. When linagliptin was administered in combination with metformin and a sulfonylurea, 181 (22.9%) of 792 patients reported hypoglycemia compared with 39 (14.8%) of 263 patients administered placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea. Adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of hypoglycemia. A concurrent glucose measurement was not required or was normal in some patients. Therefore, it is not possible to conclusively determine that all these reports reflect true hypoglycemia.

Laboratory Tests


Increase in Uric Acid: Changes in laboratory values that occurred more frequently in the linagliptin group and ≥1% more than in the placebo group were increases in uric acid (1.3% in the placebo group, 2.7% in the linagliptin group).

Increase in Lipase: In a placebo-controlled clinical trial with linagliptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with micro-or macroalbuminuria, a mean increase of 30% in lipase concentrations from baseline to 24 weeks was observed in the linagliptin arm compared to a mean decrease of 2% in the placebo arm. Lipase levels above 3 times upper limit of normal were seen in 8.2% compared to 1.7% patients in the linagliptin and placebo arms, respectively.


Decrease in Vitamin B12 Absorption: Long-term treatment with metformin has been associated with a decrease in vitamin B12 absorption which may very rarely result in clinically significant vitamin B12 deficiency (e.g., megaloblastic anemia).

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

  • Acute pancreatitis, including fatal pancreatitis
  • Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions
  • Severe and disabling arthralgia
  • Bullous pemphigoid
  • Rash
  • Mouth ulceration, stomatitis
  • Cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury



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