DEMADEX SIDE EFFECTS
The following risks are discussed in more detail in others sections:
- Hypotension and Worsening Renal Function
- Electrolyte and Metabolic Abnormalities
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In pre-approval studies, DEMADEX has been evaluated for safety in approximately 4000 subjects; over 800 of these subjects received DEMADEX for at least 6 months, and over 380 were treated for more than 1 year. Among these subjects were 564 who received DEMADEX during United States-based trials in which 274 other subjects received placebo.
Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse reactions occurred in 3.5% of United States patients treated with DEMADEX and in 4.4% of patients treated with placebo.
In United States placebo-controlled trials excessive urination occurred in 6.7% of patients compared with 2.2% of patients receiving placebo. The daily doses of DEMADEX used in these trials ranged from 1.25 mg to 20 mg, with most patients receiving 5 mg to 10 mg; the duration of treatment ranged from 1 to 52 days, with a median of 41 days.
In the placebo-controlled hypertension studies excessive urination was dose related; 1% of patients receiving placebo, 4% of those treated with 5 mg of daily DEMADEX, and 15% of those treated with 10 mg. Excessive urination was generally not reported as an adverse event among patients who received DEMADEX for cardiac, renal, or hepatic failure.
There was no effect of age or sex on the incidence of adverse reactions.
In controlled studies in the United States, DEMADEX was administered to hypertensive patients at doses of 5 mg or 10 mg daily. After 6 weeks at these doses, the mean decrease in serum potassium was approximately 0.1 mEq/L. The percentage of patients who had a serum potassium level below 3.5 mEq/L at any time during the studies was 1.5% on DEMADEX and 3% on placebo. In patients followed for 1 year, there was no progressive change in mean serum potassium levels. In patients with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, or renal disease treated with DEMADEX at doses higher than those studied in United States antihypertensive trials, hypokalemia was observed with greater frequency, in a dose-related manner.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine and Uric Acid
DEMADEX produces small dose-related increases in each of these laboratory values. In hypertensive patients who received 10 mg of DEMADEX daily for 6 weeks, the mean increase in blood urea nitrogen was 1.8 mg/dL (0.6 mmol/L), the mean increase in serum creatinine was 0.05 mg/dL (4 mmol/L), and the mean increase in serum uric acid was 1.2 mg/dL (70 mmol/L). Little further change occurred with long-term treatment, and all changes reversed when treatment was discontinued.
Hypertensive patients who received 10 mg of daily DEMADEX experienced a mean increase in serum glucose concentration of 5.5 mg/dL (0.3 mmol/L) after 6 weeks of therapy, with a further increase of 1.8 mg/dL (0.1 mmol/L) during the subsequent year. In long-term studies in diabetics, mean fasting glucose values were not significantly changed from baseline.
DEMADEX 20 mg caused small increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides in short term hypertension studies. The changes subsided with chronic therapy.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during the post-approval use of DEMADEX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Gastrointestinal system: Pancreatitis, abdominal pain
Nervous System: Paresthesia, confusion, visual impairment, loss of appetite
Hematologic: Leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia
Hepatobiliary: Increase in liver transaminases, gamma-glutamyltransferase
Metabolism: Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency
Skin/hypersensitivity: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus
Urogenital: Acute urinary retention
SRC: NLM .