AMITIZA SIDE EFFECTS

  • Generic Name: lubiprostone
  • Brand Name: Amitiza
  • Drug Class: Laxatives, Other
Last updated on MDtodate: 10/7/2022

SIDE EFFECTS

The following adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling:

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

During clinical development of Amitiza for CIC, OIC, and IBS-C, 1648 patients were treated with Amitiza for 6 months and 710 patients were treated for 1 year (not mutually exclusive).

Chronic Idiopathic Constipation

Adverse Reactions In Adult Dose-Finding, Efficacy, And Long-Term Clinical Studies

The data described below reflect exposure to Amitiza 24 mcg twice daily in 1113 patients with CIC over 3- or 4-week, 6-month, and 12-month treatment periods; and from 316 patients receiving placebo over short-term exposure (≤4 weeks). The placebo population (N = 316) had a mean age of 48 (range 21 to 81) years; was 87% female; 81% Caucasian, 10% African American, 7% Hispanic, 1% Asian, and 12% elderly (≥65 years of age). Of those patients treated with Amitiza 24 mcg twice daily (N=1113), the mean age was 50 (range 19-86) years; 87% were female; 86% Caucasian, 8% African American, 5% Hispanic, 1% Asian, and 17% elderly (≥65 years of age).

The most common adverse reactions (>4%) in CIC were nausea, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and flatulence.

Table 2 presents data for the adverse reactions that occurred in at least 1% of patients and that occurred more frequently with Amitiza than placebo.

Table 1. Adverse Reactions* in Clinical Trials of Adults with CIC

System/Adverse Reaction Placebo
N = 316
%
Amitiza 24 mcg Twice Daily
N = 1113
%
Nausea 3 29
Diarrhea 1 12
Headache 5 11
Abdominal pain 3 8
Abdominal distension 2 6
Flatulence 2 6
Vomiting 0 3
Loose stools 0 3
Edema <1 3
Abdominal discomfort 1 3
Dizziness 1 3
Chest discomfort/pain 0 2
Dyspnea 0 2
Dyspepsia <1 2
Fatigue 1 2
Dry mouth <1 1
*Reported in at least 1% of patients treated with Amitiza and greater than placebo
 This term combines “abdominal tenderness,” “abdominal rigidity,” “gastrointestinal discomfort,” “stomach discomfort”, and “abdominal discomfort.”

 

Nausea

Approximately 29% of patients who received Amitiza experienced nausea; 4% of patients had severe nausea and 9% of patients discontinued treatment due to nausea. The rate of nausea was lower among male (8%) and elderly (19%) patients. No patients in the clinical studies were hospitalized due to nausea.

Diarrhea

Approximately 12% of patients who received Amitiza experienced diarrhea; 2% of patients had severe diarrhea and 2% of patients discontinued treatment due to diarrhea.

Electrolytes

No serious adverse reactions of electrolyte imbalance were reported in clinical studies, and no clinically significant changes were seen in serum electrolyte levels in patients receiving Amitiza.

Less Common Adverse Reactions (<1%):

fecal incontinence, muscle cramp, defecation urgency, frequent bowel movements, hyperhidrosis, pharyngolaryngeal pain, intestinal functional disorder, anxiety, cold sweat, constipation, cough, dysgeusia, eructation, influenza, joint swelling, myalgia, pain, syncope, tremor, decreased appetite.

Opioid-Induced Constipation

Adverse Reactions In Adult Efficacy And Long-Term Clinical Studies

The data described below reflect exposure to Amitiza 24 mcg twice daily in 860 patients with OIC for up to 12 months and from 632 patients receiving placebo twice daily for up to 12 weeks. The total population (N = 1492) had a mean age of 50 (range 20–89) years; was 63% female; 83% Caucasian, 14% African American, 1% American Indian/Alaska Native, 1% Asian; 5% were of Hispanic ethnicity, and 9% were elderly (≥65 years of age).

The most common adverse reactions (>4%) in OIC were nausea and diarrhea.

Table 3 presents data for the adverse reactions that occurred in at least 1% of patients and that occurred more frequently with study drug than placebo.

Table 2. Adverse Reactions* in Clinical Trials of Adults with OIC

System/Adverse Reaction* Placebo
N = 632
%
Amitiza 24 mcg Twice Daily
N = 860
%
Nausea 5 11
Diarrhea 2 8
Abdominal pain 1 4
Flatulence 3 4
Abdominal distension 2 3
Vomiting 2 3
Headache 1 2
Peripheral edema <1 1
Abdominal discomfort 1 1
*Reported in at least 1% of patients treated with Amitiza and greater than placebo
This term combines “abdominal tenderness,” “abdominal rigidity,” “gastrointestinal discomfort,” “stomach discomfort”, and “abdominal discomfort.”

 

Nausea

Approximately 11% of patients who received Amitiza experienced nausea; 1% of patients had severe nausea and 2% of patients discontinued treatment due to nausea.

Diarrhea

Approximately 8% of patients who received Amitiza experienced diarrhea; 2% of patients had severe diarrhea and 1% of patients discontinued treatment due to diarrhea.

Less Common Adverse Reactions (<1%)

fecal incontinence, blood potassium decreased.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Constipation

Adverse Reactions In Adult Dose-Finding, Efficacy, And Long-Term Clinical Studies:

The data described below reflect exposure to Amitiza 8 mcg twice daily in 1011 patients with IBS-C for up to 12 months and from 435 patients receiving placebo twice daily for up to 16 weeks. The total population (N = 1267) had a mean age of 47 (range 18–85) years; was 92% female; 78% Caucasian, 13% African American, 9% Hispanic, 0.4% Asian, and 8% elderly (≥65 years of age).

The most common adverse reactions (>4%) in IBS-C were nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

Table 3 presents data for the adverse reactions that occurred in at least 1% of patients and that occurred more frequently with study drug than placebo.

Table 3. Adverse Reactions* in Clinical Trials of Adults with IBS-C b>

System/Adverse Reaction Placebo
N = 435
%
Amitiza 8 mcg Twice Daily
N = 1101
%
Nausea 4 8
Diarrhea 4 7
Abdominal pain 5 5
Abdominal distension 2 3
*Reported in at least 1% of patients treated with Amitiza and greater than placebo

 

Nausea

Approximately 8% of patients who received Amitiza 8 mcg twice daily experienced nausea; 1% of patients had severe nausea and 1% of patients discontinued treatment due to nausea.

Diarrhea

Approximately 7% of patients who received Amitiza 8 mcg twice daily experienced diarrhea; <1% of patients had severe diarrhea and <1% of patients discontinued treatment due to diarrhea.

Less Common Adverse Reactions (<1%)

dyspepsia, loose stools, vomiting, fatigue, dry mouth, edema, increased alanine aminotransferase, increased aspartate aminotransferase, constipation, eructation, gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspnea, erythema, gastritis, increased weight, palpitations, urinary tract infection, anorexia, anxiety, depression, fecal incontinence, fibromyalgia, hard feces, lethargy, rectal hemorrhage, pollakiuria.

Postmarketing Experience

The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Amitiza. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular: syncope and/or hypotension, tachycardia

Gastrointestinal: ischemic colitis

General: asthenia

Immune System: hypersensitivity reactions including rash, swelling, and throat tightness malaise

Muscoskeletal: muscle cramps or muscle spasms.

 

SRC: NLM .